Feminism and their movement for equal treatment and gender equality, in some ways, succeeded in their various objectives most especially in making their struggles known. In the past few decades, debates on the link between feminism and international relations have ensued as the feminists contend that international relations has failed to embrace gender neutrality in both its orthodox and mainstream theories. Thus, the last couple of decades were said to be the start of invasion of feminism on the core of international relations. Ann Tickner, one of the leading advocates of the feminist critique in international relations asserts that international politics is purely man's domain.1 She states that only men are given the privilege to get involved in warfare and adds that the masculine dominion not only encompasses international politics but also includes diplomacy and military service.2 In contrast, women had always been, according to Tickner, refused to be embraced in diplomacy or the military as she further observes that women in international politics are restricted to areas such as international political economy, North-South issues and distributive justice related issues. The study of gender neutrality under this field is significant as Sarah Brown suggests that the study of international relations involves the 'identification of and explanation of social stratification and of inequality' as configured in the global relations level.3 In the light of this controversy, this paper will attempt to answer the gravity of feminist assertions or if gender-neutral theories exist in the area of international relations and why the answer to this is significant to the discipline as a whole.
One of the major feminist critiques of international relations (IR) claims that most of the theories put forward by IR do not support reality and has always been a dominion of the males. Sarah Brown observes that the assumption that women need to be included or considered in the disciplines - a liberal-feminist concern, only implies that women were not really there in the first place.4 International relations is mum about women. This only means that subject matter would not exclude women in the field if it were gender neutral. The absence of women in the theories of the discipline is said to be 'hegemonic'5 as international relations failed to put forth gender related theories in which women are 'brought into the discipline'.6 Hence, advocates of this view, proposed to embrace women in the discipline.7
In order to understand what these critiques put forward, it is also significant to comprehend the arguments that feminism in the field of IR is putting forth. It is said that the most prevailing assumption we can glean about the world of politics and international relations is that it is natural and neutral. This assertion refers to the roles of males and females with regards their gender. However, the notion of gender, its universal definition and implications must first be understood.
Gender mainly refers to the identity of females and males as they are conceived in certain cultures. These identities imply socio-cultural traits assigned to women and men instead of the biologically defined distinction between the sexes. Sandra Whitworth states that gender does not imply the sex of either women or men but to the notion bestowed on their differences. Thus gender is a 'socially constructed'8 definition of the distinction
The rise of the feminist movement in the last half of the century brought about transformations and challenges on our concepts of the role of women in every aspect of our social, cultural and political lives. Terms such as gender equality and gender neutrality started to become household expressions…
Additionally, the main aim of the social movements is related to the power inequalities, possession and income of different classes of people. In the similar context, it also focuses on the formation of cultural and personal individualities. Different non-material needs have been stimulated through the main stages of life shifting only the human satisfaction of economic needs which have repeatedly been highlighted as the sole concerns of such movements.
Essay in International Relations (1) Do you think relations between nations would improve and become less conflictual if women were in power? Make sure you make reference to the discussion of feminist theory and its critique of international relations theory.
Feminism and International Relations.
Feminism seeks to champion ideologies that result in gender equality and involvement in areas such economic empowernment and political processes. Feminists face various challenges regarding the international relations such as exclusion of women as political actors, under representation and gendered character of political institutions processes.
6). The backlash against the feminist movement and the reluctance of Canadian women to identify themselves with feminist does not mean to imply a stance against gender equality, however.
The backlash against feminism is an interesting and complex phenomenon.
The roots of feminism at the global level can be traced back to the 18th century. A Vindication of the Rights of the Women by written by Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792. It is often cited as one of the earliest works on feminism. Few other works on Feminism. Later other works also came up like 'The Subject of Women' by John Stuart Mill in 1869 and 'The Origin of the Family, Property and State' by Friedrich Engels in 1884.
Feminism is a movement derived from the west in the early 20th century. It can be said that the movement started in the early 1920s which started to change the stance of women all over the world. Women have always been seen as a sign of disgrace and they have to struggle from the very start of this world to get their rights. In England, the movement of feminists has been quite successful to an extent.
The author states that due to the women oppression in various areas globally, feminists now are arguing that the movement should be borderless tackling crosscutting issues like female genital mutilation (FGM) in Africa, women oppression in Muslim countries and glass ceiling in developed countries.
The evolution of feminist counselling can be related to feminism because it had the same kind of challenges and had many women – oriented practices. The feminist counselling was a phenomenon where women