The intermittent attendance of women in the labor force would mean less return for the employer for every training and additional knowledge that it has given a female employee. The lack of training on the part of the women explains this difference in wages.
Another inevitable result of the intermittent attendance of women to the labor force is their inability to be promoted to higher position as this would mean greater chaos in the office every time the women leave for child-bearing and child-rearing. The popular books on labor economics agree on this very important explanation for the male-female wage difference.
With all other determinants equal, the reason why women are still promoted to lower position and still receive lower salaries than men is discrimination. The gender discrimination is not only observed in large countries like the USA but also in small but booming countries such as the Singapore, particularly observed in the form of pre-existing structural differences, sexism and male protecting their success by excluding women from high-paying jobs (Lee).
2. The comparable worth law is defined as "A theory holding that compensation for job classifications filled chiefly by women should be the same as for those classifications filled chiefly by men if the jobs, albeit dissimilar, are regarded as having equal value. According to this theory, workers' salaries should be calculated on a scale of socioeconomic value that transcends traditional supply and demand" (Answers.com).
The impetus of the law is to demolish any form of gender discrimination against women. But women having a low salary and coming from a different job than men may not neccesarily be a form of discrimination. What can be seen clearly as discrimination is the unequal pay between male and female with the same human capital.
One economist has excellently concluded that the comparable worth law, which by policy increases the salary of some types of women occupation will result to an increase in supply for these types of job, reduce a demand from the employers and eventually create unemployment (Mankiw). The economic benefits of this law might well be dampened by the costs, as more women become unemployed.
The question of who are more likely to be affected, meaning who are more likely to be unemployed or experience reduce work hours is of value in this discussion. Obviously, the less educated, less experienced women are more likely to be affected-the minority and the people that we actually wish to support.
A long-term effect of this policy is the reduced incentive of women to enroll in courses which gears to high positiion and salary. Comparing for example the salaries of engineers to nurses, if the government deliberately pass a policy increasing the salaries of nurses, women might not totally be interested in enrolling in an engineering course, which can affect their bankability in the future.
In order for the government to solidly enforce this law, there will be a need for more law enforcers and this is defenitely and additional expense on the part of the government (Newmark).
The comparable worth law began is practiced in some areas outside the United States such as the province of Ontario in Canada.
3. In an article, "An analysis of employment