According to Craig (1985, Pg 230-231) the work of the manager in the office is to get the job completed through workers. For this the manager ought to be proficient to motivate workers. However that is easier said than done! Motivation theory and practice are complex topics touching on numerous disciplines.
A consideration and approval of this is a precondition to effectual employee motivation in the workplace and consequently efficient leadership and management.
My piece of writing on motivation theory and practice focus on different theories concerning human nature in common and motivation in particular. Fairly distant from the advantage and ethical worth of a selfless approach to treating colleagues as human beings and valuing human self-respect in all its types, study and observation prove that well motivated workers are more creative and prolific.
A lot of psychologists over the years have made efforts to describe and categorise what motivates people. This became chiefly significant after the Second World War as the Western nations attempted to reconstruct their shattered industrial economies, and all through the '50s and '60s much was investigated and written regarding Human Relations. It was recognised that people who labored in organizations were more than just numbers and, if correctly handled, might not merely generate more, but also add extra.
Frederick Herzberg searched and practiced clinical psychology in Pittsburgh, where he researched the work-related motivations of thousands of workers.He determined that there were two types of motivation:
Hygiene Factors: that can de-motivate if they are not present - such as supervision, interpersonal relations, physical working conditions, and salary. Hygiene Factors influence the level of dissatisfaction, but are seldom referred as originators of job satisfaction (Herzberg, 2003, Pg 87-88).
Motivation Factors: that will motivate if they are present - such as achievement, advancement, recognition and responsibility. Dissatisfaction isn't usually responsible on Motivation Factors, but they are quoted as the basis of job satisfaction.
(Motivation Theories, Online, PG 1)
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
Abraham Maslow was an American behavioural psychologist who worked both in academia and industry. He issued a number of Human Relations books until the early '70's, but it was his first book, "Motivation and Personality", published in 1943, that put out his thought of the hierarchy of human wants.
The Hierarchy Of Needs
Maslow disagreed that the factors that compel or motivate people to perform lie on an ascending scale. Once a group or order of needs is satisfied, the individual will not be motivated by more of the same, but will search to satisfy top order needs. What's more, a higher order need will not be a motivator if lower order needs stay unmet (Pintrich & Schunk, 2001, Pg 24-25). Maslow classified five orders of needs, listed in ascending significance:
According to this order of need, the fundamental endurance necessities of affection, protection and food Security should be motivated. These comprise the requirements we have for oxygen, water, protein, salt, carbohydrates, calcium, and additional minerals and vitamins. They in additionally comprise the need to uphold a pH ...
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To achieve this, organizations are implementing various human resources practices like diversity management, antidiscrimination practices, human resource practices etc. Yet, these practices are either not being embraced by all to the full extent, or are leading to other issues that are further hindering employee advancement within the organizations.
Some scholars believe that Nazi Germany and Mussolini’s Italy are the only true fascist models, while others believe that Nazi Germany should be entirely excluded from the definition of fascism (Umland, 2005, p. 35). There are a number of reasons why fascism is so hard to define, according to Paxton (1998).
(Agarwal & Varma, pg. 131- 156, 1999)
A successful manager knows that simply issuing the directions to the people, will not work because there are some persons who will not carry them out in their true spirits. They will twist and misinterpret them if they do not suit their behaviour.
Motivation has been defined as the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994); and the will to achieve (Bedeian, 1993). Motivation is the fuel that drives people towards achieving their goals and objectives (Bhat, 2007 p.
Motivation theories provide ready and general constructs to analyze the behavior of human resources at work place. This analysis can distinctly exhibit the possible solutions to motivational problems at work place. In this paper we look at the problems faced in application of various motivational theoretical constructs to work place.
The organization of work and the composition of the labor force are changing swiftly and these changes have a great impact on the workers in every part of the economy. The work organization such as: downsizing and continuous improvement have a great importance in the society today but we are still unable to understand its impact on worker health and well-being.
As we move towards the top of pyramid, the needs shift from basic to opportunistic. The more stages of necessities a manager provides a worker with, the more the worker feels motivated and his efficiency in the work boosts. The step wise necessities can be seen in