The manager should realise that mental revolution is necessary which may push the organisation members to go to work willingly and enthusiastically. Highly motivated people will require lesser control to ensure the organization that work will be executed on time. However, it should not be misunderstood that motivation is a substitute of planning organising and controlling.
There have been a lot of difficulties in implementing motivation to the modern work place. This is because a man's behaviour is related with the form of behaviour, a man presents to the work. This is related to the motivating factors that are inherent in the man and affect his behaviour on the work. Analysing the human behaviour can search out this motivation factor.
There are reasons as to why a man behaves in a particular manner. If a man does not behave properly, we must understand that there is something wrong with him and the organisation should take proper care in analysing and if possible in eliminating that reason. For that purpose, the management must have a full knowledge of human behaviour.
Need* is one of the motivating factor. If a person behaves properly, it means his needs are satisfied and if his needs remain unsatisfied, his behaviour cannot remain satisfactory and he will behave in a negative way. A person joins an organisation and brings with him certain needs that affect his job performance. Some of these needs, a man cannot survive without
* Include both what a person must have and what he merely wants to have.
them such as food, clothes and shelter. However, some other needs have psychological and
social values. We have primary and secondary needs and primary needs are satisfied first and other needs come later. He tried to give needs a priority order as physiological, security, social, esteem and self-actualisation. The management and employees try to satisfy these needs in that priority order.
Abraham Maslow suggested the following hierarchy of needs which an individual attempts to satisfy them in this order: Basic physiological needs; safety and security needs; belongingness, social love needs; esteem and status needs; and self actualisation or self realisation or self fulfilment needs. Maslow's central theme revolves around the meaning and significance of human work and seems to epitomize Voltaire's observation in Candied, 'work banishes the three great evils -boredom, vice and poverty'. The great sage Yajnavalkya explains in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad that by good works a man becomes holy, by evil works evil. A mans personality is the sum total of his works and that only his works survive a man at death. This is perhaps the essence of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, as it is more commonly know. Maslow's major works include the standard textbook. Maslow's theory of human motivation is, in fact, the basis of McGregor's theory 'Y' briefly described above. The basic human needs, according to Maslow, are: physiological needs; safety needs; love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualisation needs.
Mans behaviour is seen as dominated by his unsatisfied needs and he is a 'perpetually wanting animal', for when one need is satisfied he aspires for the next higher one. This is, therefore, seen as an ongoing activity, in which the man is totally absorbed in order to attain perfection through self-development.
The highest state of self-actualisation