2004). Unfortunately, scholars have also noted that the effectiveness of other campaigns has been more modest. For example, Hankin, Sloan, and Sokol (1998) conclude that the utility of warning labels in reducing alcohol consumption during pregnancy was only slightly effective, and a review of the effectiveness of several state antismoking advertising campaigns found that several campaigns had mixed or even ineffective results (Pechmann and Reibling 2000)." (Rucker and Petty, 39)
"it is essential to consider whether the audience is disposed to scrutinize the information carefully or inclined to process the message in a more peripheral manner (Step 1). Second, it is important to evaluate message characteristics and, when possible, to design the message to contain information that will be persuasive on the basis of the audience's elaboration level (Step 2). Third, it is necessary to consider whether the goal of the message is to create an enduring attitude change or simply an immediate attitude change (Step 3). Fourth, it is important to evaluate fit among audience elaboration likelihood, message characteristics, and message objectives both conceptually (Step 4) and empirically (Step 5).