The CSA also commands and gives financial support for academic research projects for communication.
CSA has consultative powers and safeguards the general interests of viewers. It also licenses radio and TV commercial and public, terrestrial and cable and satellite. It conducts research and monitoring and considers complaints. A 1994 ruling negated the fact that the CSA has regulatory powers but it can take decisions that may be of general significance. Government has overall responsibility for the public sector especially in drawing up terms and conditions. CSA powers are limited to supervising the proper implementation of these requirements, although its opinions are binding.
Cable operating networks have to seek authorization from the commune or groups of communes involved before seeking CSA approval. The Public Prosecutor consults the CSA before issuing satellite licenses.
A 1989 judgement removed the CSA's power to determine general rules for programming. In addition to guarantees concerning pluralism, the CSA can also impose specific requirements in respect of terms and conditions. ...
CSA can fine but cannot withdraw public licenses, but publishes observations. CSA can give notice to private licensee to comply with its requirements, suspend, reduce or withdraw licenses, impose financial penalty, and can order a statement to be broadcast.
Codes of practice
CSA code of practice for the protection of children and young people was introduced in 1996. It obliges broadcasters to issue warnings for certain programs.
Defending and promoting French culture is the cornerstone of French broadcasting regulation. All governments have shared the view of media products being different from other merchandise. This is because media promote the country's identity and image. In Europe, it led to the EU's "Television without Frontiers"; directive, which recognised the principle of quotas in 1989. At the national level, this means obligations and restrictions as well as provisions to encourage national, French-language productions. These quotas are such that approximately 60% of movies and series broadcast in France have to be European and 40% from French-speaking countries. The quota system applied for radio stations should promote French singers, requiring 40% of songs to be in French or in a regional language (Eumap, 2005, 695.).
Recently, the representation of the society's cultural diversity has also become an issue in French broadcasting as part of a general political agenda. The diversity of French society is reflected poorly on French television, but regulation is very difficult to implement. One reason for this is the French constitution in which all citizens are considered equal, whatever their origin. Ethnic groups are not to be identified and cannot be counted, and only negative discrimination can lead to legal