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International Management - cultural differences - Essay Example

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International Management - cultural differences

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The cultural cluster approach is another technique for classifying and making sense of national clusters. Similarities exist among many cultures, thereby reducing some of the need to customise business practices to meet the demands of local cultures. 5
Anthropologists, sociologists, and international business scholars have analysed such factors as job satisfaction, work roles, and interpersonal work relations in an attempt to identify clusters of countries that share similar cultural values that can affect business practices. 5
Culture is defined by various people in various ways. Culture consists of the range of different behaviours that are possessed by the people. Culture is dynamically changing and it is very easily lost. The various internal systems and external environment all effect the culture of the organization and the culture in turn effects the behaviour of human beings.
Kluckohn and Strodtbeck's theory of culture points out six dimensions of culture that are there. These dimensions include identifying the nature of people, the person's relationship to nature, person's relationship to other people, the modality of human activity, temporal focus of human activity and the conception of space. These six orientations were not clearly defined as well as they were not basically focusing on management.
In a low-context culture, the words used by the speaker explicitly convey the speaker's message...
National Theory of Culture on Kluckohn and Strodtbecks Value Orientation
Kluckohn and Strodtbeck's theory of culture points out six dimensions of culture that are there. These dimensions include identifying the nature of people, the person's relationship to nature, person's relationship to other people, the modality of human activity, temporal focus of human activity and the conception of space. These six orientations were not clearly defined as well as they were not basically focusing on management.

Hall's Cultural Contexts Model
One's useful way of characterising differences in cultures is the low context-high-context approach developed by Edward and Mildred Hall. Hall's Low-Context-High-Context Approach
In a low-context culture, the words used by the speaker explicitly convey the speaker's message to the listener. Anglo-Saxon countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and Germanic countries are good examples of low-context cultures.
In a high-context culture, the context in which a conversation occurs is just as important as the words that are actually spoken and cultural clues are important in understanding what is being communicated. Business behaviours in high-context cultures often differ from those in low-context cultures.

Laurent's Cultural Parameters
Laurent put forth four parameters about the culture of organizations. These parameters revolve around the Perceptions of the organization as political systems, the Authority systems of the organization, Role formulation systems and Hierarchical relationship systems. This theory highlights the behavior of the manger inside and outside the organization.

Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) categorized cultures into a combination of ...Show more

Summary

In a low-context culture, the words used by the speaker explicitly convey the speaker's message to the listener. Anglo-Saxon countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and Germanic countries are good examples of low-context cultures. 4
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