StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Leibniz's Conception of Substance - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Leibniz's Conception of Substance

Such full understand is beyond the grasp of our finite minds, but is not beyond the grasp of God
Any object in the universe is connected in some way or another. Every substance is like an entire world and like a mirror of God, or indeed of the whole world which it portrays, each one in its own fashion. Each substance reflects all the others. No substance can really cause any change in any other. What happens to be causal interaction among substances is really a "pre-established harmony" among them, reflecting the fact that God created each one with an eye to all the rest.
The identity of indiscernibles - of all the harmoniously evolving substances in the universe, no two are alike in every respect. If any two were completely alike, they would be one substance rather than two.
The mere possibility of these other worlds defeats the implication that whatever happens in our world is necessary. Leibniz's view rule out human freedom. God has decreed that "the will shall always seek the apparent good in certain particular respects. He, without at all necessitating our choice, determines it by that which appears most desirable". Whatever we do stems from our own will, and is done in pursuit of our vision of the good. Hence, anything we do is our own responsibility. God inclines our soul without necessitating them.
Leibniz was dissatisfied with the way Descartes and Spin...
To say, as Descartes did, that there are two independent substances - thought and extension - was to produce the impossible dilemma of trying to explain how those two substances interact as body and mind either in human beings or in God. Spinoza had tried to solve the dilemma by saying that there is only one substance with two knowable attributes, though and extension.
But to reduce all reality to a single substance was to lose the distinction between the various elements in nature. To be sure, Spinoza spoke of the world as consisting of many modes in which the attributes of thought and expression appear. Still, Spinoza's monism was a pantheism in which God was everything and everything was [art of everything else.
To Leibniz, this conception of substance was inadequate because it blurred the distinctions among God, humans, and nature each of which Leibniz wanted to keep separate. Paradoxically, Leibniz accepted Spinoza's single-substance theory and his mechanical model of the universe. However, he presented such a unique theory of this one substance that he was able to speak of the individuality of persons, the transcendence of God, and the reality of purpose and freedom in the universe.
Extension versus Force. Leibniz challenged the fundamental assumption upon which both Descartes and Spinoza had built their theory of substance, namely, extension implies three-dimensional size and shape. Descartes assumed that extension refers to material substance that is extended in space and is not divisible into something more primary. Spinoza, too, considered extension as an irreducible material attribute of God and Nature.
Leibniz disagreed. Observing that the bodies or things we see with our senses are divisible into ...Show more


Leibniz was born in Leipzig, Germany. He received his Doctorate of Laws at Alder. He became a legal counselor in the court of Mainz. In 1672, he was sent to Paris on a diplomatic mission. In 1676, he was at the service of various nobles such as in the court of the Duke of Brunswick…
Author : stoltenbergbrau
Leibnizs Conception of Substance essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Leibniz's Conception of Substance"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Substance Abuse/Substance Dependence
However, as the problem has ballooned in Western society, and arguably the world over, so have the substances that are the vehicle towards addiction. Because of the breadth of the topic, this essay will focus on the systemic effects that substance abuse is having on the economy and society of the United States.
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Spinoza and Leibniz
Famous author of 'Ethics' was a lens grinder by his profession, and that is why (presumably, because of fine glass dust) he died so young, in the age of 44, in Hague. Brilliantly, he founded a version of 17th century Rationalism, Spinozism. (Nadler, 1999) Also, Spinoza was deeply concerned with ideas of 'the self' and 'the universe,' opposing mind-body dualism of Rene Descartes.
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Holistic Conception of Marketing
The products that are successful in the market segments carry an finite "satisfaction value" from the customer perspective which needs to be studied by the marketing experts before the product is designed, manufactured and distributed. This fundamental theory drives the larger frameworks of market research on customer buying behaviours such that minute details of customer choices can be used to enhance the overall value of the products.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Conception of Justice
According to kristol People are economic beings who pursue their self-interest within a free market of barter and exchange that functions to get what each one needs (or wants) by giving what others need (or want).On the other hand Rawl believes that capitalist justice is not equal to social justice.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Substance Abuse
Anyone who has watched a family member struggle with substance abuse or addiction whether to tobacco, alcohol, illicit or prescription drugs--knows how painful and disruptive it can be to family life. Addiction does not begin and end with the abuser; it sends shock waves through an entire family unit.
8 pages (2000 words) Essay
Wilhelm Leibniz's Philosophical Writings
One thing is clear. He left multiple legacies that will be felt by mankind throughout its foreseeable future. Among them, Leibniz was a forerunner of wave particle theory. And in 1676 (Haselhurst and Howie, 1998-2007. "Philosophy - On Love of Wisdom from Truth & Reality") he discovered and developed Differential Calculus independently of Sir Isaac Newton whose work in calculus slightly preceded Leibniz.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Spinozas Conception of God
In the readings consulted, Spinoza did not really argue for or against the existence of God, though he stated that the existence of God was a logical conclusion.He took that as a given. What Spinoza was attempting was a definition of the nature of God and of all existence
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Substance Abuse/Substance Dependence
Because of the breadth of the topic, this essay will focus on the systemic effects that substance abuse is having on the economy and society of the United
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Substance Abuse
Even though the information is almost similar, there are several differences evident in the two articles in regards to the sources of the substance treatment information. The journal article has credible
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Substance Misuse

 The author states that substance use disorder is a term that encompasses a number of different substances and disorders. Out of these disorders, substance abuse is the disorder that is frequently encountered. The approach with which a clinician will assess a substance abuse will differ depending on the context in which a patient presents for treatment.

5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Contact Us