The defense mechanism is categorized in three types;
i. External barriers, comprising of skin, nostril hairs etc. which tries to prevent the pathogens from entering the body. In fact the external barriers include physical, mechanical and chemical barriers. For example, skin and nostril hairs are termed as physical barriers; tears and extraction from genitourinary tract are the form of mechanical barriers. Similarly secretion of skin, eyes, oral cavities and respiratory tracts in the form of sweat, tears, saliva, and mucus containing anti-microbial peptides are the form of chemical barriers.
As the term 'innate' suggests, the innate immune system is the inherent immune system we are born with. In fact some antigens are also present in our body, but the defense mechanism learns to live with it and together with these types of proteins, the immune system gains strength over time. The innate immune system is entrusted with;
The type of innate immunity system, available in the form of protein chemical is known as 'innate humoral immunity'. Body's complement system, interferon and interleukin are some of the examples of such a system. The complement proteins together with interferon and antibodies form the all important white blood cells in the body. The complement system is a defense mechanism involving a group of more than 30 interacting soluble plasma proteins. These cell proteins provide the early warnings by way of triggering inflammation and synthesis of enzymes, so that reproduction and multiplication of viruses can be blocked.
Allergies and inflammation are the forms of innate immune response. Redness, swelling, heat and pain are some of the initial responses of the immune system against the infection. The innate immunity system tries to highlight the ferocity of the pathogens by such actions. The inflammation occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, heat or toxins. The damaged tissues release some chemicals like histamine, serotonin or bradykinin. These chemical substances in turn cause the blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, which causes swelling. This helps in taking appropriate response e.g. medication and precaution. The innate immune response is generated by the white blood cells, natural killer cells (NK cells) and T
The immune system is a protective mechanism, which saves us from the adverse impacts of potentially harmful viruses. The molecules on the surface of viruses, cells, fungi or bacteria, known as antigens send across a signal to the immune system. Subsequently the immune system reacts to the situation and tries to destroy the pathogens containing these antigens…
The development of effective DNA vaccines against T. gondii can help mitigate and control the spread of toxoplasmosis, a move that is critical to both human health and the farming industry. Immunization with DNA vaccines can stimulate humoral and cell-mediated immune response, all of which are significant in conferring immunity to Toxoplasma gondii (Dubey 2008, p.467).
This essay discusses that since our body is constantly exposed to harmful antigens, it has evolved a really nice defense mechanism in the form of innate and adaptive immunity. This defense is quite sophisticated as it is capable of recognizing ‘self’ from ‘foreign’ and taking rapid action in order to protect the body from any harm.
The protection to human body is provided by sweat, saliva and tears from eyes, among other agents. Although these defenses may be passive, yet they are quite affective in combating infection, while being called as ‘non-specific’ defenses. When the body is not able to ward-of the infections at level one, the second level defense mechanism becomes active.
WHO Considers Vaccination to be a Primary Intervention in the Prevention of Disease and Promotion of Wellbeing.
Define the terms immunology and vaccination;
Immunology refers to study of molecules, cells organs and systems, which facilitate identification and disposal of foreign materials.
The entry of a foreign pathogen is resisted by reactions of both innate and acquired immunity. The one comprises of the skin as an anatomic barrier; temperature, pH, oxygen, etc. as physiologic barriers; ingestion of pathogens as an endocytic barrier, and inflammatory barriers.
The acquired immune system is responsible for the destruction of foreign particles once they have entered the body. Acquired immunity is a useful evolutionary adaptation because it improves the efficacy of the innate immune response by focusing the response to the site of invasion/infection as well as providing additional effector mechanisms that are unique to lymphocytes.
This disease that commonly affects the lung was first isolated by a German physician, Robert Koch, in 1882 who subsequently received a Nobel Prize following its discovery (Schiffman, 2008). This disease also affects other parts
These reactions incorporate the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity (The Open University, 2006, p 137). Thus, from this perspective the innate and adaptive immunity reactions are equally important elements
4 pages (1000 words)Essay
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