An earlier research has shown a relationship between hydrogen and a trace element (ANSTO, 2003).
For analyzing these suspended particulate matters, these particles have to be collected as per a standard procedure and thereafter have to be investigated. For analyzing the nature of these suspended particles especially PM2.5 various analytical techniques are used. Analytical techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission or particle induced gamma ray emission; IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used for finding the elements, inorganic compounds and organic compounds respectively (Measurement methods, 2007).
In the present study a literature search has been carried out to study the impact of bushfires on our environment and the examples of Australia and Singapore bush fires has been covered. A brief introduction of PM2.5 has also been covered. A few analytical instruments utilized by the various environmental protection agencies have been studied with respect to their advantages in bushfires. The through principles of the instrument techniques were also studied and a conclusion of the study has been made.
The most common measurement in air quality is the concentration of suspended particles in it and is reported as the PM index. ...
PM10 (where the total concentration of all particles having diameter less than 10 m) are being monitored by various government agencies in many countries such as US, Canada (Baird, 2005). Many government agencies are also looking for monitoring fine suspended particles having diameter less than 2.5 m, as these are within the respirable range and can penetrate deep into the lungs.
US EPA specification for PM 2.5
US EPA National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS) have set standards for particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10. For PM2.5 it has set an annual average of 15 g/m3 with a 24 hour standard of 65g/m3 and for PM10 an annual average of 50 g/m3 with a 24-hour standard of 150 g/m3 (ANSTO, 2003). A short term US EPA NAAQS standard for air borne particulate matter is given in Table-1. As many countries still do not have their own specifications for PM2.5, most of the countries follow US EPA guidelines.
Sampling of Particulate Matters:
It is really difficult to collect a representative sample especially from a bushfire. However the sample should be collected from multiple locations so that the analysis gives more prcis and meaningful results. The sample collected from different part can either be mixed or separate analysis can be carried out. There are various methods involved for collecting particulate matters. A few methods are summarized below.
a) Filter cups: Filters are the simplest way of collecting particulate matters. Aerosol sample is passed through a set of filters at a controlled rate so that a specific particulate matters are collected through a specific filter. These filter papers are cellulose, glass fiber, teflon or a combination of materials (Thompson, 1998).