This happens when the mother is drinking alcohol, smoking or using illegal drugs during pregnancy.
As vulnerable as he is, the child has no choice whether or not to take these materials since the membrane wherein exchange happens is only a cell thick (Pillitteri, 2007) and minute breaks could surely allow the entrance of materials inside the growing organism's body. With this occurrence, the use of illegal drugs, alcohol and even tobacco smoking is highly discouraged to pregnant women.
In the early 1990s, there is a very limited attention in law regarding this case. Though many have been challenged and litigated for using these discouraged drugs while carrying a child inside their wombs, many mothers have been saved. However, the case of Jennifer Clarice Johnson was unique among them.
Among an estimated 375,000 children every year being delivered by mothers who use illegal drugs, very few have been tried and convicted. To prevent the dreadful future of these children, authorities have been arresting mothers whose newly-delivered children tested positive for illegal drugs and most cases are from South Carolina and Florida (Lewin, 1992).
Jennifer Clarice Johnson is a twenty-three year old African-American woman residing in Florida, who was charged, tried and convicted with two-counts of delivery of illegal substance to a ...