In the course of the research, varying and opposing definitions of genius were arrived at. The term genius was at first referred to as a "man endowed with superior faculties" referring to some popular figures as the famous author and lexicographer Dr. Samuel Johnson, Albert Einstein, Immanuel Kant, Abraham Lincoln, Isaac Newton, Leonardo da Vinci and many others. It was also referred to as a quality, "that everyone possessed, an animating spirit that represented one's character and interests as much as one's ability". Through time, there were changes in the understanding of the term and was then associated with "one's natural ability or talent, and eventually with the special ability of a few". (Benet, 2005)
In some other references as in the article of David Every, he insinuated to link genius to insanity, and gave a definition "an abnormal IQ, to the point where the person is 1.5 times as "logical" as the average person, or basically testing beyond the 98th percentile (3rd or 4th deviation)". (2006) Genius was also linked to psychoticism as some form of madness, "associated with an above-average level of psychological disturbance, though in combination with high general intelligence". (Brand, n.d.)
However, in the more recent century, when the interests shifted to psychometric methods of assessment, the term genius became associated with the quantitative concept "Intelligence Quotient or IQ".
Intelligence Quotient or IQ is "the ratio of an individual's estimated mental age and chronological age multiplied by 100". Alfred Binet, a French psychologist developed the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale in 1905 that measured the intelligence quotient. The initial IQ classification geared a scale of, IQ -140 and over as genius or near genius, 120-140 as very superior intelligence, 110-120 as superior intelligence, 90-110 as normal or average intelligence, 80-90 as dullness, 70-80 as borderline deficiency, 50-69 as moron, 20-49 as imbecile and below 20 as idiot. The classification changed in 1997 by the David Welcher - the Adult Intelligence Scale, which classified IQ -130 and above as very superior, 120-129 as superior, 110-119 as high average, 90-109 as average, 80-89 as low average, 70-79 as borderline and 69 and below as extremely low. Welcher's terminologies used were noticeably more considerate and humane and avoided type casting. The term genius was not used anymore. (Benet, Classification n.d.)
Intelligence and Genius
The conflicting issue is that studies did not show clear relationship with IQ and the popular meaning of genius. It was noted that IQs of popular personalities were approximated in the above 130 or genius level. But the concept used is that of popularity. The word genius was derived from the Latin word, "gignere" which meant to beget or to produce. The reference to genius is one's ability to create something, which, the IQ tests did not measure. Albert Einstein was, according to sources, not an achiever as a child. The development of his speech was delayed and he dropped out of his early school years. He was also report to have failed in the college admission test in Zurich. But Einstein was recognized