Later we will see leadership in the Eastern society, but now let's look at a classification of leadership according to the following main characteristics as summarised by David Boje (2003):
Charismatic inspiration - attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this esteem to motivate others; Preoccupation with a rle - a dedication that consumes much of leaders' life - service to a cause; A clear sense of purpose (or mission) - clear goals - focus - commitment;
Results-orientation - directing every action towards a mission - prioritizing activities to spend time where results most accrue; Optimism - very few pessimists become leaders; Rejection of determinism - belief in one's ability to "make a difference"; Ability to encourage and nurture those that report to them - delegate in such a way as people will grow; Rle models - leaders may adopt a persona that encapsulates their mission and lead by example; Self-knowledge (in non-bureaucratic structures); Self-awareness - the ability to "lead" (as it were) one's own self prior to leading other selves similarly.
One common attribute that signals any leadership is vision. This element is universally looked for in any kind of leadership. Vision is a fundamental force that moves the followers towards a goal. This vision is supposed to have the following characteristics in order to be effective according to the Wikipedia (2005):
appear as a simple, yet vibrant, image in the mind of the leader
describe a future state, credible and preferable to the present state
act as a bridge between the current state and a future optimum state
appear desirable enough to energize followers
succeed in speaking to followers at an emotional or spiritual level (logical appeals by themselves seldom muster a following).
2.- Scientific Management, Administrative Managements, and Mary Parker Follett.
Paul D. Gardiner (2005) makes a simple distinction between Scientific and Administrative Managements: "Scientific management focuses on the 'one best way' to do a job. Administrative management emphasizes the flow of information in the