This is so because paramedics who usually have to treat such patients initially do not have sufficient therapeutic means to stymie this neurologic damage process during ischemic conditions.
Mild hypothermia () have been induced in patients with cardiac arrest as a therapeutic means for protecting the brain against the global ischemia that usually accompanies open-heart surgery (Nolan et al, 2003). This therapeutic means was available since the late 1950s after which it was discontinued for some time because there was indefinite indication of benefits to patients (Nolan et al, 2003). Much later, this means has again been reintroduced in the context of cardiac arrest for a select group of patients and there are positive indications that when this therapeutic means is used after return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest there is improved functionality and preemption from histological defects to the brain. This is true of a number of animal models, including the human one (Nolan et al, 2003). ...
gh stringent and complex inclusion criteria in Europe and Australia has established that neurological outcomes (ability to live independently and work at least part-time, etc.) are selectively available for groups of patients free from certain pathological complications (Nolan et al, 2003). Nevertheless, there are significant adverse effects that entail more research on the treatment option (Nolan et al, 2003).
Mechanisms of action of induced moderate/mild hypothermia primarily include reduction of cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen @ 6% for every degree (Celsius) fall in temperature >. This reduces chances of mitochondrial damages and apoptosis from decreased production of free radicals, excitatory amino acids and calcium shifts (Nolan et al, 2003).
External cooling techniques to induce mild to moderate hypothermia include use of cooling blankets, application of ice packs to groin, axillae and neck, use of wet towels and fanning and use of cooling helmets (Nolan et al, 2003). Recent internal techniques such as intravenous infusion of crystalloids and intravascular heat exchange devices are beginning to become available (Nolan et al, 2003).
Since it is found that though extracorporeal techniques are efficient they are too invasive for use in prehospital treatments and most emergency departments this paper shall now discuss research on introducing a hypothermia therapeutic technique that is internal, safe, easily administrable out-of-hospital and cheap and includes infusion with selective crystalloids like common salt. This following section shall be deemed as the problem statement of the paper.
As has already been mentioned, the need for an internal technique that is not invasive and that can be performed safely and cheaply out of hospital and
This paper heralds a future research study into investigating whether therapeutic hypothermia initiated by infusion of cold () normal saline (2L) will be sufficient in producing better neurologic outcomes in patients of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The paper has proposed three hypotheses the proving correct of which shall entail success…
Ischemic injuries occur as a result of the body experiencing periods of inadequate blood flow due to cardiac arrest or stroke due to occlusion of an artery from an embolism. Induced hypothermia can occur through invasive methods during which a medical practitioner inserts a catheter in the inferior vena cave through the femoral vein.
Other rhythyms and cardiac arrest complications/conditions which comprise less than 2% include subarachnoid hemorrhage or trauma, pregnant women, pediatrics, coma after near-drowning, hanging and other causes of asphyxia. About 60% of cardiac arrest survivors regain consciousness; of these, one-third experience irreversible cognitive disabilities.
Correspondingly, their studies provide sufficient evidence in the literature that supports the use of induced hypothermia to prevent and limit this anoxic brain injury (Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest Study Group 2003; Bernard et al. 1997).
For therapeutic reasons, induced hypothermia is defined as the controlled lowering of a patient's temperature.
According to the article, it is quite evident that mild induced hypothermia substantially improves the neurological outcome and also reduces the mortality rate in several patients. In most cases, cardiac arrest patients usually do not survive from the effects of the condition. Therefore, most individuals are working together.
Patients who have cardiac arrest may develop neurological problems because of the lack of oxygen supply to the brain. In such situations, it is important to reduce the person’s risk of developing neurological problems. This is often possible only by
Indeed, there are diseases that come and go in no time but there are others that come and stay with us for long, living highly consequential health risks on us. One of such dysfunctions is cardiac arrest in adults, which has been
er, a nurse would really not have a sense of advancement in the execution of these skills, competence and knowledge if there are not concrete methodologies with which the duties they carry out are adequately measured. In this, Arcure and Harrison (2009) noted several means by
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