Every child is unique and has abilities, interests, characteristic and learning needs - in addition there is the gender difference. Schools must recognise this basic fact and design their curricula, teaching practices and equipment to provide for the needs of their pupils. It is here that instead of plain theoretical development, practical experience in real life must be integrated into education through a cycle of action-reflection-action (Kolb, 1984). Experiential learning must be used to bring about this change.
The concept of inclusion applies to the inclusion of all students into education regardless of their ability, age, gender, ethnicity and background (Frederickson & Cline, 2002) and must cover the range of experience associated with school, namely, the culture and communities and extra-curricular activities.
Education is divided clearly into two parts, one, the learning through practical observation and experimentation in their natural environment and second, through formal teaching, strengthened through supplementary work at home. [School/ schooling, here and elsewhere in this essay, include preschool, school, college, university and vocational training institutions].
It is important that inclusion to span the entire spectrum of people concerned with the education of the pupil; and that includes all pupils, male or female, ranging from those with special gifts to those with disabilities or having special educational needs [SEN], parents, and teachers. Each of them must join the process with enthusiasm and a feeling of belonging [inclusion] where they feel wanted, valued and happy in sharing the success of the joint efforts.
"Inclusion is seen to involve the identification and minimising of barriers to learning and participation and the maximising of resources to support learning participation"
(Booth & Ainscow, 2000). Discrimination, bias and prejudgement are barriers that need to be lowered so that the available resources are put to optimal use in forwarding the education of all the pupils, with equity and effectiveness. The responsibility for making the change required to bring this about lies squarely on the shoulders of the schools.
In addition to gender difference the basis for non-inclusion and difference in treatment of individual pupils may range from EAL [English as and Additional Language], specially gifted and talented students, ethnic heritage/ background, or disabilities both mental and physical. Non-inclusion creates people who feel discriminated against and bring attitudes of prejudice, fear and bitterness into their lives and society. Non-inclusion is caused by the system and not by the limitations of the students. Whatever the reason, there is nothing that is provided by special schools that can not be reproduced in the normal schools, and therefore pupils with disabilities and learning difficulties need not be segregated or protected. As more pupils of this type are enrolled in mainstream schools it will become possible to divert the money, materials and teachers enabling them to meet the challenges of extending their services to the diverse composition of their alumni.