While the classical view of IHD has been the accumulation of plasma lipids and other sedimentary substances (plaques) on arterial walls, diminishing the lumens by large percentages till serious impediment to blood flow occurs that lead to the pathological condition. There are also other factors that progressively weaken and rupture arterial walls and also seriously affect blood flow (Libby, 2006). The principal predictive potential to assess degrees of progression towards cardiovascular disease is assaying the levels of these risk factors in the blood. These factors are consequently called biomarkers and since they generally affect blood flow to the heart they are also called flow basis biomarkers. This paper is assessing the predictive values of some non-lipid biomarkers.
Biomarkers capable of predicting cardiovascular risk are generally categorised into eight groups - 'inflammatory markers, markers for plaque erosion and thrombosis, lipid-associated markers, markers of endothelial dysfunction, myocardial injury or dysfunction markers, oxidative stress, metabolic markers and markers of neovascularisation' (Cooke, 2006).
Common lipid biomarkers are low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol including oxidised LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein and lipoprotein-associated phosphol