"Critical reasoning, as defined in plus definition set, is always rational because it uses reasons one way or another. However, although rational, it is not necessarily sound. Critical reasoning can be sound or unsound" (Critical Thinking, n.d.). These characteristics can be developed through management practices that foster analysis of the elements of reasoning. As a cognitive process, critical thinking may be defined as a self-reflective grasping of the structures of thought and subjecting them to (rational, reasonable, logical) standards that facilitate the perception and correction of errors in thinking (Schafersman 1991). In some cases, the role of the leader is to facilitate managers' learning not what to think, but how to assess the quality of their own thinking and reasoning in general. Because knowledge is attained only through thinking critically about the reasoning involved in reaching conclusions, managers must be continually asked to reflect on their reasoning and the reasoning manifest in all forms of communication and technical processes. "Usually critical thinkers are a mixture. They promote root verities and insightful observations on one hand and, then, turn around, and advocate root errors that undo the good they are trying to promote" (Critical Thinking, n.d.).
Creative thinking style helps managers to find 'unique' solutions in difficult situations and bring together creative ideas. Creative thinking style and management strengths can be characterized as the source of opportunity which lies in know-how decisions. Creative thinking implies new ideas which put into practice through: creation (something new), synthesis (combining concepts), or modification (changing things). Also, researchers distinguish critical and creative thinking. "Creative thinking is generally considered to be involved with the creation or generation of ideas, processes, experiences or objects; critical thinking is concerned with their evaluation" (Critical and Creative Thinking (n.d.).
Logical thinking means careful analysis of all possible steps and outcomes. It means establishing premises and reasoning through conclusions, and it is critical when the reasoning processes are grounded in standards, self-reflexive and self-corrective. This means that conclusions, the end-product of reasoning processes, must survive their implications. In this sense, logical thinking is a generic skill, having a high level of transferability across disciplines. "To be sound, all levels of thinking must meet the same logical requirements. The difference is in the level of awareness, not in the logical form" (Critical Thinking n.d.). Persuasive thinking is based on emotional impact aimed to persuade an opponent or the group in some ideas and decisions. Through an integrated focus on the elements of reasoning and intellectual standards, persuasive skills are developed.
Three styles are based on the reasoning processes and an ability of a deep evaluation of thinking, beliefs and actions. The main difference is that logical thinking is based on logic and judgment while persuasive and creative thinking are based on emotions and feelings. Using creative thinking, employees find different methods and ways to apply innovation to different fields of knowledge. In contrast, logical