Managerial Behavior: Kotters Model for Organization Change

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Retired Harvard Business School Professor John P. Kotter, who was born in 1947, is a graduate of MIT and Harvard. He joined the Harvard Business School faculty in 1972 and is today considered to be the world's leading expert on leadership and change. He is the author of numerous articles published over the past two decades in The Harvard Business Review as well as 15 books on these topics that are in the top 1% of sales from


He based his model on many years of consulting experience that gave him insights on the many complex difficulties that organizations face with their change efforts, around which he developed a platform of central themes that involve an eight-step process for implementing successful organizational transformations.
Kotter's guiding principle in the book, which is that most organizations today lack the leadership they need,is based on a series of six articles that he originally published in The Harvard Business Review. To summarize, his eight-step change process prescribes:
In a variety of practical ways, Kotter's model has chiefly concerned itself with social psychology because, to achieve any meaningful transformation, an organization must deal with people and change. It is for this very same reason that he goes to great lengths to establish a distinction between management and leadership. He has argued (1996), for example, that "successful transformation is 70 to 90 percent leadership and only 10 to 30 percent management" (p. 26). ...
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