However, the third hypothesis was relevant to the nature of the impact that parental involvement has on young children.
The study was conducted with 25 families of children that were in kindergarten and first grade. Both parents worked outside the home and according to Culp et al. (2000) contributed to the fathers, "[...] taking a greater responsibility in their parent-child interactions during weekdays than single-earner family fathers" (p. 28). Based on this increased involvement by the fathers, Culp et al. (2000) confirmed their hypothesis when they concluded that greater father interaction was "associated with children's perceptions of self-competence and social acceptance" (p. 36).
The Culp et al. (2000) study found that while increased father involvement elevated the child's sense of parental acceptance, it did not improve their cognitive or physical abilities (p. 36). Though Culp et al. (2000) found that more involvement by the male parent resulted in a perception by the father of better physical behavior, the study pointed out that this might only be the father's perception of the child's behavior (pp. 35-36). The increased time spent with the child, and the added responsibility of caring for them, may alter the father's perception but not the behavior of the child.
Erikson's model would tell us that increased father involvement during stage 2 and ...