Most of these countries already started the recycling of their garbage. Many recycling plant were built for plastics, metals, and biodegradable waste but dumping of waste on landfills is still being practiced.
The rate of recycling of biodegradable waste was the major difficulty for most of the landfills. The faster rate of waste input as compared to the waste degradation to the landfill pushed many governments to look for an alternative and faster way of decomposing organic waste products (Recycled Organics Unit 9).
Decomposting is a process by which organic waste matter is buried or stood still to allow bacterial decomposition to occur. Bacterial decomposition of organic waste is naturally occurring in garbage landfill but the rate of it is slow. Other methods were used to allow faster decomposition of organic waste in garbage landfill. Using worms to increase the rate of conversion from organic waste to fine organic materials is known as vermicomposting (Munroe 1).
The result of decomposting is the "compost" production. Compost is a fine, nutrient-enriched, soil-like materials from the decomposed organic waste. Composts are used as an organic fertilizer by farmers. The use of worms in decomposting, which is known as vermicomposting, would produce a vermicompost. Vermicompost is like compost and both are used as an organic fertilizer. Since the rate of production of vermicompost is faster than the compost, the use of vermicomposting in organic fertilizer production and organic waste management recycling is favored (Recycled Organics Unit 9).
The increasing popularity of vermicomposting on both waste management and fertilizer production leads to the increasing demand of worms. The worm, specifically earthworms, culture is called vermiculture. Vermiculture is a process by which earthworms are nurtured and fed in a bin or other storage materials to increase their numbers. The number and reproduction rate of the worms should be enough to sustain a regular harvest (Munroe 1). Although vermicomposting uses earthworm, there are only some species of earthworm that could be used and readily available for vermiculture.
There are three types of earthworm namely epigeic, endogeic, and anecic type. Epigeic type of earthworm thrives on the surface of the ground. This type of earthworm feeds on fine or decaying organic matter readily available on the ground. On the other hand, endogeic type of earthworm thrives in the ground. This type of earthworm makes and lives in a horizontal hole within the ground. Endogeic earthworm surfaces very seldomly because it already feeds on organic matter imparted within soil. Anecic type of earthworm makes and lives in vertical hole within the ground. The vertical burrow serves as their protection and passage to the surface of the ground to obtain food at night (Recycled Organics Unit 13). Epigeic type of earthworm is used mainly in vermicomposting but anecic type could also be used in addition to the epigeic.
Although there many species of epigeic earthworm that can be found in decomposting and vermicomposting area, Eisenia fetida is the most commonly used species in vermicomposting particularly in temperate countries because the rate of organic matter utilization and reproduction is fast, the range of tolerance to chemical and physical