Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti later used linear perspective. Significance of expressions, postures and proportion increased. This approach of understanding and learning in art was said to be the 'humanist' approach. Humanism emphasized on the right of a man to reason out his beliefs and thereby, made it important for him to be an individual who realized his potential. There was a visible return to the state of naturalism. Such changes mainly took place in some parts of Europe, especially, Flanders and Italy. (Early renaissance art, 2008)
The fall of Constantinople in 1453 also indirectly contributed to such changes in Italian architecture, literature and paintings. This event led to the migration of scholars to Rome. These scholars were interested in learning of their new environment, which led to their research about arts and art techniques prevalent there. They needed the intellectual knowledge, akin to ancient times. Filippo Brunelleschi made use of mathematical coordinates system rather than irrational forms and measurements. Leon Battista Alberti added to this approach, a method of using a wider social and urbane context, laying emphasis on walls rather than points in his buildings. (Early Renaissance Architecture, 2008)
Next came the concept of Neo-Platonism. ...
According to him, the beauty exists when all parts are in harmony, such that nothing can be added to or taken from it, without spoiling the whole. One of the famous Aristotelians was Leonardo da Vinci.
High Renaissance generally started with the painting of The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci. Painting had a sort of decisive period in its style. This period was when there was a mass convergence of talent in the same area. The characteristics of the High Renaissance paintings were clearly seen in those of the Three Big Names of this period - Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Although these geniuses deserve their fame every bit given, there were also many others with staggering talents. (Finearttouch, 2008)
During this period, the Humanism concept was replaced by Mannerism. The importance given to perspective, balances and proportions earlier was then given to depicting expressions in art. Pontormo showed the troubled expressions clearly and another citation can be El Greco showing the intensities of emotions. This was definitely maturity over the serene faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael. The pleasant mood in Giorgione and young Titian also reflect the above idea. In The Last Supper, Leonardo recreated the earlier traditional theme in a new style. Christ remained a nucleus of serenity while the others showed animated expressions and wonder about who was the traitor among them. This marked the start of Mannerism in paintings. The ever famous Mona Lisa also shows the ingenuity of this artist - the meaning of her mysterious smile still being unknown to us. Leonardo was the creator of what was known as the atmospheric perspective.