Thomas Aquinas. Al-Ghazali, after studying the rationalist philosophers became a mystic convinced that ultimate truth could be attained only through revelation. While other philosophers claimed that God dealt only with universals, Ghazali's God was concerned with the minutest details. Perhaps best known to the Western World were Ibn Sina, known in Europe as Avicenna (980-1037), and Ib Rushd (Averroes). Ibn Sina's numerous works, also rooted in Aristotle, greatly influenced medieval European philosophers such as Abelard, Albertus Magnus, and St. Thomas Aquinas. Ibn Rushd, born in 1126 in Spain, wrote about philosophy, mathematics, law, and theology, building upon his predecessors, al-Farabi and Ibn Sina. He was the last of the classical Muslim philosophers in Spain. Faith in the existence of human knowledge in all men marked his philosophy - which also had many similarities to that of Thomas Aquinas.
The ninth century A.C. forms the golden period of the development of Islamic learning, when the Arabs were the real standard bearers of civilization. They not only saved Greek learning from total extinction but also made lasting contributions to almost all branches of knowledge and made considerable advancements in diverse spheres of human activity.