Though many have seen ethanol as a potential long-term solution to global energy concerns (Shimada, 2002), there are numerous shortcomings associated with increased dependency on this energy source (Newman 2008). The current ramifications of a shift to bio-fuel production include a rise in the cost of food production as well as an increase in food shortages in certain parts of the world (World Bank 2008).
In a study the researchers, Zeller and Grass (2008) discussed the progress towards substituting renewable energy sources for fossil fuels can contribute to the mitigation of climate change in detail. The extent to which agro-fuels, such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol, can easily replace fossil fuels, which partly depend on the current competition with the traditional food, feed and fibre sectors, can be substantially reduced. Agro-fuels hold a number of opportunities, but also present are the formidable constraints, especially for poorer, food-deficient developing countries. So in order to address the constraints and capitalize on the opportunities that agro-fuels hold for sustainable development, more investments in socio-economic and technological research, especially for agro-fuels produced from cellulosic materials and agricultural by-products and waste, are required. Agriculture and agriculture-related deforestation also contribute to the emissions of GHG on a substantial scale (World Bank, 2008).
Two drivers of global change will have a decisive influence on the future of the world's agriculture and forestry, and therefore on food security, poverty reduction, the environment and economic growth in developing countries. The drivers are on-going climate change and our increasingly pressing need to find renewable and sustainable energy sources. The Stern report states that developing countries situated in the tropics and subtropics will be severely affected by climate change (Stern, 2007). One key causal factor of human-induced global warming is the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the use of fossil energy.
Seeking to address some of these concerns, this analysis will explore whether or not consumers are willing to accept ethanol as a substitute for fossil fuels if they are aware of the true costs of its production. Research on the consumer knowledge of the effects of ethanol is nascent but scholarly analysis of the phenomenon is growing (Shimada, 2002). The research paper will explore the attitudes of consumers to the emergence of fossil fuels on the market through an analysis of published research on the subject.
In response to the recent introduction of hydro fuel cell buses in the Swedish capital of Stockholm, Sweeden, Haraldsson et al. and colleagues (2006) undertook the first ever Swedish analysis of the attitudes of individuals toward the implementation of this important phenomenon. Undertaken in 2004, their study used a qualitative analysis to explored and identify the views of two important hydro-fuel cell bus stakeholders in Sweden, passengers and drivers of the vehicles.
Beginning their study with a desire to seek first-hand, descriptive accounts of these primary stakeholders, Haraldsson et al. endeavored to explore people's knowledge of, and attitudes towards, The Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) project, described as "the largest