When the culture attains a large size and an advanced character such as the way it assures peace and order, justice, defense from other people's acts of war, how the culture is transmitted, and so on, the culture is said to attain the level of civilization (Diamond 12-13).
Civilizations develop when people band together because they have a common purpose that they want to attain. In order to achieve this, these people agree to live together in peace because they share the same history, language, beliefs, and attitudes to life. They get to distinguish themselves from other people who may share some, but not all, of these ways of life. However, people living together as a society and using the same resources may not agree on how the resources would be shared, so they either allow someone to be their leader, usually one with the qualities that everyone admires in that society (Diamond 421).
The historical evidence also shows that civilizations develop in certain geographic areas that are ideal in supporting large groups of people, their food supply, that are easily accessible by common means of transportation, and easy to defend from other people who may be after what they have (Diamond 496-499). ...
They had attained a high level of culture and became rich by trading with other people along the Mediterranean Sea (Diamond 3-4).
Around 1375 B.C., the Minoans were conquered by the Mycenaeans, who then began spreading their competitive, creative society throughout the Aegean, starting a cycle of building and destruction that lasted for centuries. Greek society became poor and illiterate because of the wars that took place continuously in the region (Diamond 3, 14). When the Greeks could not take it any more, the ordinary people started grouping together and organizing themselves into City States under strong democratically chosen leaders. The wars continued until Philip of Macedon conquered most of the Greek City States through military strategy and statecraft (Noble et al. 39-45).
Philip's son, Alexander the Conqueror, continued his work and expanded the Greek Empire and spread Greek civilization to Asia and Africa, resulting in cultural fusion where the Greek civilization influenced and was influenced by foreign cultures. After Alexander's short reign, his successors continued what he started, making Greece richer culturally and economically. The arts flourished, and so did the status of women, and science, and philosophy. The cultural mixtures that resulted as the Greeks interacted with other peoples of the Mediterranean transformed Greece's political, religious, and philosophical traditions.
All these resulted in greater diversity and freedom, contributing to an increase in social divisions as people believed in different things and lost sight of the common things they believed in. Suddenly, instead of the people in the society enjoying what they had in common, they began being divided in their way of thinking, the goals they