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Cultural Tourism: A Strategic Focus - Essay Example

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In the study of tourism, the conception of authenticity has undergone three shifts for the past 40 years, with objectivist framings giving a way to a social construction perspective and later, existentialist conception (Cohen, 1972). The author chose Botswana in his report because the country's tourism is very progressive because of a lot of interesting places such as its flora and fauna.
The study has several parts, impacts of tourism, economic impact, political impact, and social impact, major impact of tourism in Botswana, other issues and concerns, sustainable and development of tourism and finally, evaluation and conclusion. Of there will be a part of tourism planning in this report as this is the main objective of the investigation.
The economic, socio-cultural, political and environmental impacts of tourism all play significant roles on its positive and negative effects (Holder, 1999). Over the last two decades tourism has become progressively more battered and trapped by the forces of globalization in different economic, social, cultural, and environmental disguises.(Baribier, Burgess and Pearce:1991) Although effects are positive as well as negative, it tends to be the last that are problematic and frequently form the focus of academic research (Jayawardena, 1999). The stable increase of tourist arrivals has far-reaching inferences for the tropical, insular, physical environment as well as affecting levels of regional economic prosperity and disparity (Jayawardena, 2000).
One of the positive impacts of tourism is it generates foreign exchange earnings from tourists when they spend their money within a given country (Jayawardena, 2001b).. Food, accommodations, transportation fees, attraction admission fees and souvenirs are the main income generators.
A negative economic impact of tourism is the increase in prices. This happens when a large number of tourists visit a particular place or when a place becomes too popular that tourists storm a particular destination or attraction (Jayawardena, 2002). It will reflect against the local residents who have low income earnings (Jayawardena, 2002b). Tourism can also cause rapid building costs and domination of economic activities to foreign-based companies and not to the local inhabitants.

Tourism can lead to an improvement of national understanding. The negative aspects of tourism are the high costs for the construction and maintenance of the infrastructure, water systems etc. that have to be paid through taxes (Mathieson & Wall, 1992)
The effect of tourism in the politics of Botswana is very motivating locally, nationally and internationally, because almost whole of the country participates in tourism activities that adhere to international unity. (Sutton, 1991)

The socio-cultural impact of tourism is felt when people of different areas and different cultures have an exchange of information (Jones, 1931). The positive impact starts when visitors learn from locales and vise versa. It is a well known fact that with mingling of people from different cultures and backgrounds, mutual understanding is enhanced and peaceful co-existence is the product. On the other hand the above factor can cause cultural abuse and biases according to one's belief and culture. This is where the negative impact ...Show more


The term "tourism" has many meanings, which have changed over time, and tourism studies clarify the different meanings of the term. Recently tourism is recognized as a social phenomenon with a variety of social-cultural impacts at both the individual level and the global level, and it is a pronounced and significant reality that all social sciences undertake…
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Cultural Tourism: A Strategic Focus
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