At the start of the twentieth century, researches on this subject had been mushrooming steadily which opened ways for better health practices. One of the pioneers in this field was Frank M. Burnet (Nossal 108).
Frank Macfarlane Burnet was an Australian virologist and Nobel Prize winner recognized for his contributions to the field of immunology. He conducted ground-breaking research on bacteriophages and viruses at and served as director of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute. His virology research led to considerable impact related to discoveries on the nature and replication of viruses and their interaction with the human immune system. He was deeply involved in immunology research, more specifically in the theory of clonal selection which illustrates how lymphocytes choose antigens for destruction, which provided the experimental background for the induction of immune tolerance. His contributions in this field also set the platform for the development of protocols for solid organ transplantation and vaccination. He contributed important knowledge related to influenza research which included techniques for growing and studying the virus and hemagglutination assays. Apart from his discovery of neuraminidase he also worked on the genetic control of virulence. He also wrote a monograph entitled "The Production of Antibodies," which was later revised with co-author Frank Fenner in 1949. This book was considered as a key publication in the field of immunology. It contained the essential demonstration of the shift on the science of immunology from a chemical point-of-view to a biological one. Furthermore, it is this work where he introduced the model of 'self' and 'non-self' to immunology. Using his concept of the said model, he formulated the hypothesis of 'autoimmunity" which is a situation wherein the body produces antibodies against its own components and consequently, the idea of immune tolerance. Through his model called clonal selection, he expanded current knowledge on immunology by proposing that each lymphocyte possess on its surface specific immunoglobulins mirroring the specificity of the antibody which will be produced later one the cell is stimulated by an antigen. According to him, the antigen functions as a selective stimulus for the proliferation and differentiation of clones that possess receptors for that antigen. Such was the impact of Frank M. Mcfarlane to the field of immunology and vaccination (Nossal 108).
Epidemiological Studies on Non-Infectious Diseases
Every public health organization must have extensive and up-to-date information regarding diseases and health indicators to be more prepared and armed in the dispersal of control and preventive measures. This implies the conduct of epidemiological studies which involve efficient collection and analysis of large amounts of data related to public health. Information that can be generated from this activity will be very helpful in the causal identification of non-infectious diseases and for the formulation of health programs by the local and the national government (Stroup & Teutsch 312).
Epidemiological studies are based on systematic and instructive surveillance of the health of the general public which requires careful statistical analysis. To be able to establish an effective non-infectious