A baseline pretest (T1) and two posttests at 1 month (T2) and 6 months (T3) were conducted after the experimental intervention or usual care.
To measure the emotional distress among African American mothers, they used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. This 20-item scale assesses the frequency of feelings or behaviors such as the blues, loneliness, thinking one's life is a failure, and difficulty concentrating. Items are rated on a 4-point rating scale ranging from 0 (rarely) to 3 (frequently).Another test was used to assess mood or general affective state. This was the Profile of Mood States (POMS), a 65-item rating scale where respondents rate the frequency with which they experience these feelings using a 5-point rating scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 4 (extremely). Stigma was measured using the Demi HIV Stigma Scale, where content validity of the 3-item scale was supported through steps used in its development. This included literature on stigma associated with chronic illness and HIV to identify items as well as revisions based on focus group data from African American women with HIV who examined the items. Lastly, Miles et al.