The fourth plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. The two towers of the World Trade Center collapsed within hours after burning due to structural failures.As a result of the attacks, 2974 people died immediately and the number later increased even more. Most of the victims were civilian and included national from more than 80 different countries. To investigate the attacks, the American government formed the 9/11 commission which released its report in July 2004. The report concluded that members of al qaeda were behind the planning and carrying out of the attacks. The attacks were headed by osama bin laden and align with osama’s declaration of a holy war against America. As a result of the attack, widespread confusion was created all over the United States. For 3 days, the US soil was closed to all international civilian air traffic, those already inflight were either turned back or redirected to Canadian or Mexican airports. Contingency plans were also implemented in order to secure the government and evacuate leaders. The 9/11 attacks caused major political ramifications globally and the media and government from all over the world denounced them. The world over feelings of sympathies existed and were denounced by mainstream media and governments worldwide. The attacks were condemned by leaders of many different countries specially from those of Middle Eastern countries.
The attacks not only changed many things in America but also resulted in far and wide repurcussions for other countries including the introduction of "anti-terrorism" legislations and arresting of "terrorist suspects" (Wikipedia, 2008).
The attacks of September 11, 2001, shocked the whole world. As preventive measures to occurring of any such drastic event, different governments in different countries took various measures like increasing security checks, arresting suspected terrorists and passing different legislations. The government of USA, in order to prevent such incidents in the future, implemented a National Security Strategy referred preemptive or Bush doctrine.
The man behind this doctrine was President George W. Bush and hence it earned its name. This doctrine has numerous goals and objectives, which were to be attained over both short term and long term period and one such important objective is the identification and destruction of threats before they reach American borders. The American government, at the time of creation of this doctrine was and still is incumbent on accomplishing the objectives whether they are supported by international community or not.
The doctrine consisted of various broad measures as well as specific ones. The Broad measures were meant for the long term and included the waging of wars at any place from where supposed threats arise to the USA whereas the specific actions were meant to be implemented and have an impact on the short run. Some of the specific measures that were taken dealt with all kinds of objects crossing the US border, whether they were human or nonhuman. The doctrine suggests that all such objects are to be submitted to specific controls, preferably even before their arrival at the American borders ("TM", n.d.)
War on terrorism
The most imminent outcome of the bush doctrine was the announcement of "war on terror" by the Bush administration. The decision to start the war was portrayed as a chain reaction to the events of 9/11, whatever the actual reason might have been.
Two major outcomes of this announcement were invasion of Afghanistan and invasion of Iraq. Barely within two months of the 9/11 attack, the Bush administ