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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was isolated in 1983 in a lymphadenopathy patient, and it took up to 1984, to be demonstrated distinctively to be the causative agent of AIDS. In 1981, AIDS was first recognized in the United States (Gallo and Montagnier, 2003)…
It took, however, less time to identify that both male and female injection drug abusers, recipients of blood transfusions and patients with hemophilia, all are prone to this disease. As Berer (2004) has pointed out, these all point to an epidemiologic pattern, which indicated that the disease agent, most probably microscopic organisms are transmitted through both homo and heterosexual contacts and blood and blood products are the suspected etiologic agent. By the time this was known, AIDS became an epidemic (Berer, 2004).
Epidemiology of AIDS and HIV infection took strongholds since this disease seemed very difficult to be conquered despite tremendous advancement of technology, diagnostic measures, and epidemiologic strategies. As Lashley (2006) has pointed out, the main reasons for this most contemporary failure of modern medicine were perhaps multifactorial; however, as things progressed, many unknown information unveiled themselves. In 1985, a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, which led to an appreciation of the scope and evolution of the HIV epidemic at first in the United States and other developed nations and finally among developing nations worldwide. Now AIDS is considered to be a pandemic throughout the world (Lashley, 2006).
With the growth of the epidemic, there has been a proportionate explosion of information and a huge volume of research and resultant ...
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