StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

International Urben Policy - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet
The paper tries to analyse the problems facing the growth of this unplanned city and tries to formulate measures whereby these can be tackled so as to make it more progressive and habitable.
Nairobi is a city that faces a major influx of refugees moving into its urban areas. Interestingly, this migration pattern into Nairobi is not only for economic opportunities. Apart from economic migrants, the country also has hordes of people who move out of camps providing assistance to them, as the quality of aid is very low. Regarding this, it would be worth observing that whereas the period 1997 - 2001 was characterised by a 24 percent decline in the global refugee population compared to the pervious five years, the share of refugee from Africa rose from 20 to 45 percent during the same period. Also, as the demographic status of refugees varies across regions, and even within countries, it is dependent on the normative value of the refugees themselves. By end of 2001, Kenya was home to over a quarter of a million refugees. And out of this, almost about 50% of the refugees were aged above 18 years while about 45% of the total population were female. These refugees including those in urban areas posed a challenge not only to the government, but also to the indigenous populations. The host country saw them as an imposing and alarming threat to their own sovereignty, security and global stability.
The governmental failure to unify the various clans and tribes of the city along with the influx of the refugees is inter-related to the demographics of the inter ethnic relations of the city. Research involving the various tribes such as the Luyia, Kuria, Suba, Luo, Maasai, or the Kalenjin and their inter racial interactions has shown that the relation of these refugees with the people, as well as the relation within the tribes themselves is pretty complicated. What makes it more dangerous is the existence of separate political affiliations of ethnically defined groups to political parties in the multi-party system of Kenya. Even with the coming of self governance, the colonial power is still considered to be an important influence on ethnic identification. Among the Luo, Maasai and their Bantu neighbours, there is a cultural gradient or a culture prestige gradient with the Nilotes at the upper end, and this status differentiation in several cases is stabilised by the appointment of chiefs from high status groups by the colonial power.

This intra racial differentiation leads to a process of social exclusion. This, on the other hand, is also propagated by what has been termed as the 'filtering down process' of educational facilities being provided to the people of the different groups: broadly speaking the 'haves and the have nots'. Put in a nut shell, the educational policy in Kenya is such that it is generally the children from educated and well to do parents who can pursue higher education.
The process of filtering down ensures that even when the government adopts a policy of educational expansion, it fails to lead to intergenerational job mobility. As Hazlewood puts it,
the much greater expansion of secondary education, drawing in many more, and a much higher proportion, of the children of the uneducated in Kenya than in Tanzania, has made access to secondary educatio ...Show more


For a city that has the highest urban population in East Africa, Nairobi's so-called rise from the swamp it was in 1899 to what it has been today, has been one of fits and starts. It is a city that has grown sporadically, without proper planning or management, and this paper tries to locate the reasons under lying these criterions…
Author : miller41
International Urben Policy
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"International Urben Policy"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

International Transport Policy
Liverpool as a whole has enjoyed higher rates in revenue from tourism that that of other popular areas, such as Sefton and Wirral. In 2002, Liverpool’s revenue from tourism was ?341.52 million (Digest of Liverpool and Merseyside Tourism, 2007). It rose 9% by the following year and by 2007 it was up to ?
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
International Relations and Foreign Policy
It governs the concept of how countries behave with one another in general and the reasons they have for such behavior. International relations theories aim to explain this phenomenon by devising frameworks that illustrate how countries behave with one another, how they should behave, what effects it has upon the economic system, and how different countries can seek to survive in the international arena (Dougherty and Pfaltzgeraff, 2001, pp.
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
International Trade Theory & Policy
The model portrays a world encompassing two countries, both using a single production factor (labor) to yield two goods. This model purports a fixed quantity of labor is required in order to yield a single output unit of each good in each of the two countries despite the quantity produced as a whole (Jonathan & Kortum, 2002).
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
International Urben Policy Essay
Knowledge is transmitted through language and that is again transmitted by different 'centre' producing such ideological bases. Nevertheless, how does it affect the society and its "spontaneous" thought processes or cultural set-up To answer this Althusser (1978) coined the term "Ideological State Apparatuses" and "Repressive State Apparatuses", gives that necessary epistemological break, more analytically than Gramsci (1971), in his theory of social "hegemony".
2 pages (500 words) Essay
International relations - foreign policy
Policy,here referring to a certain course of actionAccording to Feigert,Graebner,Papademetriou,Mangone,Ransom,Wilson,Wolfe,Piper & Terchek,foreign policy is the foreign component of public policy.Simply defined,public policy is the choice or the stance that particular governments adopt with regards to certain issues in country.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
International Maritime Policy
The threats include pollution from a wide range of land-based sources (industry, municipalities, and agriculture), extensive resource depletion due to unregulated fishing and mariculture, oil pollution due to waste dumping, and many others. Intensive efforts to create an effective marine environment regime to address the threats were initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1991.
12 pages (3000 words) Essay
International Business Law Policy
government's attempts to promote uniformity in commercial laws from state to state is firstly, the relevant provisions of the US Constitution and also Section 118 of the General Business Law which predates that of Section 7-210.1 The UCITA, as a controversial model law promulgated by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, covered transactions in computer and digital information, in place of Article 2 of the UCC.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
International Policy
Economic development can be defined as efforts of seeking ways to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community by creating and retaining jobs and supporting or growing income and the tax base. Development, according to Canada, can be achieved by ensuring that the millennium development goals (MDGs) are realized by the developing countries.
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
International Business Policy
Ever since the Chinese came out of their Walled existence and opened themselves to the International communities, they have become the focus of the whole world. Having the largest population on Earth opened up a marketing opportunity that was
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
Politics of international trade policy
The main conflict is the World Trade Organization or WTO that every country, that is opening its domestic economy, should join. It is incumbent on the member-country to agree to certain conditions to become a member and a primary consideration is the requirement to open up its economy to imports from all the other nations.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Essay on topic International Urben Policy for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
Join us:
Contact Us