No stepping-stones. Summer Winter"
Located in the southern tip of African continent, South Africa, known as South African Republic till recently, has mixed racial background of whites, blacks and Indians. It was discovered by Europeans during the age of discovery competition among European powers. Both Archbishop Tutu and President Mandela called South Africa as The Rainbow Nation.
Country has world renowned archaeological sites and fossil wealth at Sterkfontein, Makapansgat and Kromdraai which has given the world homos, homo habilis and homo erectus etc. It presents the most fascinating tapestry patterns of human struggles and endeavors, where almost all the stages and results are visible.
The Portuguese, Dutch, and British competed for supremacy that slowly paved way to practice of severe apartheid that the world abhorred for decades. Workers came from countries like India, Madagascar and Indonesia, who are called Cape Malays now. Great Britain defeated the rest of European powers, especially Dutch, and after 1860, finding diamonds and gold became the main cause of greater potential and resulting immigration.
"The South African whites must either be embarrassingly stupid of Machiavellian;there are nine million Africans against their three million; how do they propose - in a democratic arrangement - to balance this numerical superiority" asks Modisane (1963, p.239) in Blam ...