This study purports to examine structures of social norms pertaining to HIV risk behaviors within social networks and relationship between norms and risk behaviors. Social norms - and change thereof - are instrumental for changes in a number of health behaviors. Still, few studies have examined social structure of norms with an aim to introduce changes in health behaviors. This study examines relationship between norms as perceived by reference group members, associated risk behaviors, and actual norms within drug networks based on a cross-sectional study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Thailand and the United States. Cultural differences are also accounted for.
In an attempt to address health behavior change - a change carried out from an individual level to group level - a number of approaches are first discussed. Social diffusion is a health behavior change approach by which "early adaptors" (i.e. individuals who lead behavior change) diffuse new behavior into wider community. Though proving successful in so far as HIV risk reduction is concerned, change leaders approach has not proven significant for behavior change, not to mention identification of involved social networks.
A second approach to health behavior change is an introduction of descriptive data on group's social norms to target audience. Arguably, one critical question pertaining to interventions intended for health behavior change is whether individual perceptions of social norms shape reference group health behavior or reference group's actual social norms influence individual behaviors. This approach would require individual-based or group-based behavior change interventions depending on which impacts on which, individual or group.
In either case, identification of most influential reference group is paramount for social network analysis, a critical tool for examination of structures of social norms. Moreover, certain reference group members are more influential than other group members and hence effectual in health behavior change. Significantly, a network's structure is fundamental, according to mathematical models, to behavior change.
NORMS, NETWORK, HIV RISK BEHAVIORS IN THAILAND AND U.S.: SUMMARY 4
Data collection and pool were based on HIV Prevention Trials Network protocol 037. Prior to conduction of study approval of protocols and procedures by Institutional Review Boards at Johns Hopkins University, University of Pennsylvania, the Royal Thai Ministry of Public Health and Chaing Mai University had been secured. An independent advisory board for each site checked on outcomes and consequences. In addition, independent monitors checked and verified regularly on compliance with approved protocols and pro
This presentation is a summary of a study supported by HIV Prevention Trials Network and sponsored by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, U.S. Department of Health and others on social norms, network characteristics, and HIV risk behaviors in Thailand and the United States as well as a personal reflection on study's impact on author's thinking about human sexuality and /or sexuality education.
The author states that the post modern managerial leadership met the challenges by developing new products that met the fast changing preferences of people. The modern management theories were focused on the productivity criteria and traditional management worked within the broader parameters of organization’s administration and management guidelines.
Researcher’s arguments will then be perceived in every second paragraph for each journal article. Organizational learning has been depicted as the ultimate source to attain competitive advantage (Fang, Jiang, Makino, & Beamish, 2010 as cited in Teh & Yong, 2011, p.
One such country is Namibia, which is located in south-western Africa. With a population of 1.6 million, including 11 ethnic groups, it is among the world's most sparsely populated nations. As of 1996, the national seroprevalence of HIV was estimated to be 15% among antenatal patients, with rates as high as 25% in some districts.
This paper reviews the analysis of works of Toft and Reynolds, two very learned risk management analysts. They have also within this article discussed an intelligent approach towards risk estimation and management.
Turner, from his research work and later published book "Man Made Disasters", establishes that clear patterns can be drawn out of every disaster that takes place due to human negligence (Turner, 1978).
In order to know the employee, it is better to listen them. In order to listen them, semi-annual surveys were conducted in order to collect their feedbacks and opinions in PwC. The data collected through these surveys
The hiring process will deliberately select people with diverse ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. Different norms such as dress code, body language, power distance and behavior rules will hinder the effectiveness of the teams.
The writer identifies 3 different bases of power and 4 different types of influence tactics that might be used effectively to have senior management. He introduces these technologies and practices, explaining in detail why these power bases and tactics would be acceptable and effective in this situation.
10 pages (2500 words)Book Report/Review
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