With the implementation of new processing systems, an external parameter has been introduced within the organization that changes the creation and manipulation of information. The fundamental question arising is concerned with the relationship between this external parameter and the agents - knowledge workers - of the organization.
Boardman Management should take into account its current system and future goals connected with business expansion and future development. As new technology is introduced, knowledge workers have to make media choices that translate into alternative ways of processing information. These media choices are made in the context of having to achieve an expected level of individual performance. In these circumstances, knowledge workers appropriate the technology according to their needs and given organizational norms. Although top management may have a specific output in mind, the invested new software technology is adopted by organizational members who make the eventual decision regarding the use of the technology. The underlying idea is that new software technology is created and changed by human action, yet it is also used by people to accomplish organizational aims. Knowledge workers may, for example, decide to use group support systems for the purpose of generating ideas, yet refuse to use these for overcoming conflicts (Laudon and Laudon 2005).
Boardman Management should take into account current problems and skills deficiencies, routine work and complexity of organizational structure. This means that workers are limited in their full range of media choices. Furthermore, political processes within organizations demand the negotiation of appropriate media choices. These negotiation processes adhere to established social patterns that have developed over time. This means that the media choices of organizational actors are partially predetermined by established organizational norms. This in addition to the inability to make media choice decisions under perfect information limits the 'optimal' use of new technology within organizations. Although workers may have a certain degree of influence over the use of new technology, the word processing software environment has properties, that cannot simply be denied by knowledge workers. This means essentially that the word processing software has both objective and negotiable properties. Objective properties are given by the type of communication technology employed as well as the inherent features of the technology. Groupware leads to a different impact on the organization than does electronic mail because of the features that the technology provides. Groupware allows several people to communicate simultaneously, while electronic mail is an asynchronous medium. The word processing software has objective properties, but it is its subjective properties that are negotiated through social interaction between organizational actors. These subjective properties develop through repeated patterns of use of communication technology, which in turn form routine practices within the organization, and, over time, these become objective features of the organization (Laudon and Laudo