More often, the damage is so sudden that all precautionary and preventive measures fail. For example, the hurricane that caused the devastation of Smallville, Florida led to a complete revision of the city's disaster management system.
Hence, we define our problem, "there is a need to establish emergency management systems where they are not aligned and strengthen such systems where already applied". After defining the problem we can establish the objective of this essay as "design, develop and ensure successful implementation of a disaster management system which minimizes the probability of destruction caused by a disaster, whether natural or man-made."
It is evident that survival chances after a disaster are widely improved if people, governments, organizations and emergency services have sufficient preparation of essentially required plans and equipments. Such measures are highly dependent on the location and can vary with the kind of disasters that may occur in the area. This give rise to the concept of disaster management which is basically a process of continous planning aimed at prevention.. Disaster management therefore refers to programs and measures designed to prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from the aftereffects of disasters.
Activities that are designed to reduce the risks of damage caused to public through disasters come under mitigation. It involves continous efforts to educate governments, organizations and general public on measures they can take to diminsh loss and injury. Thus, mitigations attempt to prevent the disaster from occurring, or reduce its effects. For example, projects like raising the level of a city and efficient drainage system can prevent floods to cause massive damages.
Preparedness sets out a series of measures to prepare the masses to tackle with natural or man-made disasters. Usually a policy is directed by the government to prepare for nonmilitary civil emergencies before they happen. Many cities also offer training for community emergency response team. Training is provided to teams of amateur emergency workers in every neighborhood. These are truly useful because in an emergency, emergency service providers are instantly overloaded. The trained amateurs can handle emergency rescues instantly and assist professional emergency services.
The degree of responsiveness of emergency management services is cruical in minimizing the effects of disaster. A very common problem however is the lack of trained respondents in case of mass emergencies. There are always fewer people handling the situation and larger people suffering from it.
Rebuilding damaged infrastructure and restoring people to their normal course of life is covered under the recovery phase. The essential recovery is to repair bridges and roads so as to give access to rescue teams to the affected areas as well as provide exit routes for the people affected by the disaster. Roads also provide a way to delivering essential supplies like food and water.
It is important to understand that all four phases work together. For instance, if the mitigation phase is flawed, the recovery phase even if strong is going to suffer.
Human behavior in a Moment of Crises
Panic is the right word to define the immediate response of people.