assignment for MSc in Innovation Management

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Radical change is second order or episodic change, infrequent, discontinuous, and intentional. It often involves replacing one strategy or programme with another, and usually results from unexpected shifts in external (competitors, markets, customers, technologies, and legislative climate) or internal (firm politics, knowledge base, or other uncertainties) factors.


Transformational change requires a shift in conduct that results in an organisation significantly different in structure, processes, culture, and strategy. Transitional change seeks to achieve a known desired state different from the existing one, examples of which are the basis of much organisational change literature (Kanter, 1983; Nadler and Tushman, 1989).
TQM refers to a management process directed at establishing organised continuous development activities involving everyone in the organisation in a totally integrated effort towards improving performance at every level (Almaraz, 1994). It is a management philosophy and business strategy rooted in the works of Deming (1986), Ishikawa (1985), Juran (1988), and Crosby (1989). Hackman and Wageman (1995) lists TQM's four general principles:
TQM focuses on work processes, explicit identification and measurement of internal and external customer requirements, analysis of variances, use of cross-functional teams, management by facts (data), learning and continuous improvement, and the use of process management heuristics. Through data collection, analysis, hypothesis formation and testing, process changes can be devised and introduced steadily and continuously to improve quality.
Whilst radical change is episodic, emergent, second order, transitional or transformational, TQM is designed ...
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