After the maximal bone mass is attained at the age 30, the rate of bone loss for both gender is approximately 0.5% per year, and it increase to approximately 1% per year or more in menopausal women. This is so because, estrogen acts indirectly to suppress bone re-sorption, an action reduced/absent during menopause. Poor nutrition or an age-related decrease in intestinal absorption of calcium because of deficient activation of vitamin D is a culprit of the prevalence of Osteoporosis among elderly. "In the United States, 10 million people already have osteoporosis. Millions more have low bone mass, or osteopenia, placing them at increased risk for more serious bone loss and subsequent fractures"."Hip fractures are common and are often devastating in the geriatric population". Other risk factors found to be associated with this disease include, smoking, alcohol ingestion and genetic predisposition. As with the case at hand patient Hunt manifested almost all of the indicated risk factors, having had hysterectomy at the age 45 inducing early menopause, smoking and alcohol consumption and most of all, a history of calcium and Vitamin D deficiency as evidenced by Rickets disease in her childhood.
Weight-bearing exercises like jogging, walking, rowing and weight lifting are important in maintaining bone mass. ...Show more