The book starts with Mohammad and the basic teachings of Koran and Islam. It tells about the how Islam basically starts and when Mohammad starts preaching and the behavior of people in the land at that time.Begging with Caliphs, the writer gave the descriptions about the four caliphs of Muslim world. Starting with Abu Bakar, who was the first Caliph, and started his rule after the death of Mohammad. It was a difficult time for Muslims, as after the death of their Prophet, people started to pay less attention to Islamic laws and also there was a chance of anarchy. But Abu Bakar controlled the Muslims with his wisdom. He ruled for two years and was succeeded by Omar. A man of rules, Omar played an important role in Muslim's revival and also many areas were conquered in his era. His era shows the great development within Muslim world, not only as they conquered different parts of Middle East and Africa, but also he solved many conflicts within Muslim world. He established few basic practices. He remained as a Caliph for almost a decade and during this time, Islam spread worldwide and he conquered large are of land as well. Hence, his era could be called the unforgettable era of Muslims. He established the first public treasury and also financial administration for the first time. Umar succeded by Usman, the third Muslim Caliph, ruled for almost twelve years. Islam spread worldwide during his era. He arranged the Koran in an order and spread it all over with the same order. The Koran that is read by Muslim today is the same version. He was murdered by few young men, as anarchy among Muslims started at that time. He was succeeded by Ali, Shia Muslims consider him as their spiritual leader. Ali was famous for his bravery, his rule is still remembered as the one which kept Muslims united. But after all these Caliphs, Muslims never get united again.
Abd al-Rahman I (755-788)
Hisham I (788-796)
Al-Hakam I (796-822)
Abd al-Rahman II (822-852)
Muhammad I (852-886)
Abd Allah (888-912)
Abd al-Rahman III (912-929)
Abd al-Rahman III (929-961)
Al-Hakam II al-Mustansir (961-976)
Hisham II al-Muayyad (976-1009, 1010-1013)
Muhammad II al-Mahdi (1008-1010). A great-grand-son of Abd al-Rahman III.
Sulayman ibn al-Hakan ibn Sulayman al-Mustain (1009-1010, 1013-1016)
Al ibn Hammud (1016-1018)
Abd al-Rahman IV (1018)
Al-Qasim ibn Hammud (1018-1021, 1023)
Yahya ibn Al ibn Hammud (1021-1023, 1025-1027)
Abd al-Rahman V (1023-1024)
Muhammad III (1024-1025)
Hisham III (1027-1031)
After telling about the four Caliphs, writer stated about Ummayad Caliphs. It was established in 661 and last for a century. Damascus was the capital of Islamic World which got wider till that. It includes a great part of Asia and some part of Europe as well. Ummayad era is remembered as a golden era. Islamic conquests continued during this time, including Asia and Europe, the main parts conquered at that time were Central Asia, Spain, France and Indian subcontinent.
Not only they did well in Defense side but also they did great at founding and organizing the basic social and legal institutions of the Islamic world. A great work on Literature, Sciences, Medical and Humanities was conducted in Ummayad era.
They were succeeded by Abbasids, who shifted the capital of Muslim world from Damascus to Baghdad. Baghdad developed into a true centre of learning and culture. Abbasids rule for over five hundred years. The beginning of their era is marked with the success of Islamic scholars who played a great role in today's world sciences. Not only in sciences, the great philosophers published their