In 1989, Charles Jeneway published it classical paper discussing inate immunity and establishes the fact that recognition of pathogen is done by germline-encoded receptors and not the recombinant antigen receptors (Janeway, 1989) He establishes the role of co stimulatory molecules or signals responsible for T cell activation. After extensive research of almost 20 years we have identified that co- stimulatory signal named as Toll receptor and its pathway. Surprisingly people working with different model system recognize that Toll receptor was not only responsible for human innate immunity but also found in wide range of living systems starting from earthworm to plants. Initially Toll receptor was recognized for its role in innate immunity but later on many unique role of toll was appeared in different model system like In drosophila where Toll have key roles in development. Investigation of Toll receptors and pathway related or activated by this receptor open ups new era of innate immunity and give us insight in to evolutionary conservation.
Toll like receptors (TLR) are PRRs (pattern recognition receptor) having unique and essential role in innate immunity. It comprises of family of type I transmembrane receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine rich repeat domain and intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. ...Show more