The second and third major types of strain deal with the two major types of punishment: the removal of positive stimuli and the presentation of negative stimuli. Strain theory argues that such punishing stimuli often increase the likelihood of deviance. Strain theory specifies many of the conditions, in which punishment is likely to be seen as unfair. For example, punishment may be seen as unfair if the if the juvenile did not have a voice in making the rules that were violated, if the punishment is perceived as disproportional to the infraction, or if the juvenile does not accept blame for the deviant act. As usual punishment serves imprisonment.
3. When dealing with police, courts and prisons there is an interaction between deviant and representatives of body of the social control, which plays an important role. The initial contact with the youth generally involves the police apprehending the youth in the act of committing a crime or responding to a complaint about the youth. There are very few juvenile justice systems that can be said to represent a pure child welfare model of juvenile justice, although the model is evident to some degree in systems such as Australia that have diversion procedures which allow many cases to be directed out of the judicial system.