The Industrial Revolution from 1820 to 1870

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The Industrial Revolution from 1820 to 1870 was one of the most important economic developments in the United States. But there were two industrial revolutions. The first began in the late 18th century in the Britain. The second occurred during the mid 19th century in the US and Germany.


Whereas the first revolution played a role in the invention, development and implementation of spinning and weaving machines for the textile industry, which use water power until the introduction of steam power, it was the second revolution that really changed American economy and society into a modern industrialized state. The process had begun in the 19th century.
Growth in the 19th century was fuelled by many factors: plentiful resources, innovative technology, cheap and efficient energy, swift transportation and labor and capital which were readily available (Wikipedia 2007). In the west, forests, mines and cattle supplied the raw materials for key industries. The rapid expansion of railroads allowed businesses to transport raw materials to and from factories and move products to the cities where the bigger markets lay. Around this time too, a continual flow of European and Asian immigrants arrived in America to seek work. Many found work in the factories and mines.
Advancements in technology shaped and improved production with the invention of the assembly line in a number of industries. This along with new machine tool industries which produced cutting, drilling and milling machineries, hastened manufacturing and production. A series of breakthrough inventions and discoveries such as the phonograph, electric light, telephone, typewriter, automobile and others opened up new industries. ...
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