This Civil War Pension program provided benefits to war veterans with disabilities, in addition, widows and orphans could receive pensions equal to the amount paid to veterans. Starting with the year 1906 old age has become the main qualification for the benefits payment. Thus, by the year 1960 the following groups of people were receiving benefits: Civil War veterans, survivors with disabilities, and the old-aged. Later, these programs would become known as Social Security.
In particular, four major demographic changes led to the emergence of Social Security in the early 1930s: the Industrial Revolution, the urbanization of America, the disappearance of the extended family and the market increase in life expectancy. Also, as a result of an Agricultural Revolution the majority of self-employed workers were transformed into industrial working class. When primary income comes from wages, economic security is threatened by recessions, layoffs and business failures, factors that employees have no control over. Industrialization has led to city growth and by 1930 half of the population was living in cities. The trend towards urbanization resulted in the disappearance of the extended family. This was due to large families living in the same residence. ...Show more