StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Habituation in Spirostomum - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Habituation in Spirostomum

The unicellular organisms, Spirostomum also undergo changes on habituation. Spirostomum are ciliated protozoa and habituation helps in studying behavioral changes in these parallel to habituation. But it is viewed as a process to filter out iterative stimuli with no significant changes. And the easiest way to judge the changes is that as habituation is a homeostatic process it optimizes the Spirostomum's likelihood of judging the importance of the stimulus in a new iterative series or a change in it.
The method to detect the low or high responsiveness to the stimuli is that if we take the initial responsiveness as organism's threshold prior to stimulus occurrence then if it has high initial response it is said to have lower threshold and if low initial response visa versa. In Spirostomum the time course of contraction is very rapid with 4 to 5 mS as the cells contract at a rate in excess of 100 cell lengths sec-1. And as the stimulus strength duration judges the threshold response, Spirostomum is said to have full or no contraction at all. The changes in resting membrane potential do not cause initial contractions while microinjection of calcium buffers induce contractions.
The Spirostomum are habituated to a mechanical shock and cause brief contractions. And as the stimulation is repeated the number of contractions decreases. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein have also been found to increase during habituation as per the foundations of Applewhite, Gardner and Lapan. As the RNA and protein increases occur after a few consecutive stimulations RNA and protein inhibitors can also be used in combination. Though large amounts of RNA and proteins are not needed for habituation in protozoan Spirostomum.
For the process of habituation firstly place the individuals on the slide. Tap the slide with mechanical stimulus every four seconds. You'll notice a change in Spirostomum behavior after 12 to 20 stimuli. The calculation of the percentage of the protozoa contracting can be done by counting from photographs taken during the process. Various studies have shown that Spirostomum can remember for ten minutes maximum.
The term behavior is used to extend the original meaning to the concept of primary internal processes and changes occurred due to habituation in single cellular organisms. It includes their iterative external stimulation, their initial threshold to the initial stimulus and the behavioral changes in them. The shorter life span of habituation in Spirostomum also suggests that synthesis of macromolecules may not be necessary. Therefore, the adaptive significance of habituation in Spirostomum as viewed across the science of phylogeny.

Sources / References:

1) Smith. James, Eisenstein. E.M., Eisenstein. D. Research & Development. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Los Angeles, CA. The Evolutionary Significance of Habituation and Sensitization Across Phylogeny: A Behavioral Homeostasis Model.

2) The Department of Zoology. University of Hul. Hawkins. R.B. <>

3) Journal.

4) Applewhite and Gardner (1968). Applewhite, Gardner and Lapan(1969)



7) Protein and RNA Inhibitors and Protozoan Habituation. Gardener. Frank.T, Applewhite. ...Show more


Habituation is a reversible decrement of response of the cellular organisms to repeated stimulations. It is seen in both aneural and neural organisms which shows its importance in the animal survival. The unicellular organisms, Spirostomum also undergo various changes on habituation…
Author : ardellamitchell
Habituation in Spirostomum essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Habituation in Spirostomum"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Meditation is often used in conjunction with exercises and therapies such as Yoga. Meditation is a type of exercise which includes sound mindfulness and can be considered a form of introspection. Meditation involves focusing your senses from the outside world inward by systematically limiting sensory input.
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Analyze forms of simple stimulus learning
The inborn flexibility of central nervous system permits having the range of variable responses to the same repeating stimulus. As far as learning may occur consciously or without awareness of the process, the forms of simple non-associative learning are interesting for analysis as the most natural way of human mind to accumulate new knowledge about reality.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Innate and Learned Behaviors
Breathing The most basic and instinctive behavior that is essential to human life is breathing. Breathing is the manner of inhaling the oxygen from the environment and exhaling the carbon dioxide from the body (“Breathing,” 2012). Breathing is the only way to obtain oxygen as the substantial source in supporting human existence (“The importance of oxygen,” n.d.).
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Withdrawal reflex and habituation in the garden snail
There is many types of learning, the most basic form of which is non-associative learning. Surprisingly noticed even in primitive life forms, such as the protozoan Stentor coeruleus, it represents a type of learning where the organism becomes aware that some events are unrelated and irrelevant.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Week3 DQ Team
An allergic reaction produces an inflammation in the tissue which is affected by the allergen. The terms habit and addiction are clearly distinguishable in connotation. However, in the area of substance abuse, there is often a tendency to use the
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Habituation in sow bugs
These crustaceans preference for moist environment is partly due to the lack of a waxy cuticle to cover their bodies. Thus, they are prone to drying up (Common Wood Louse, 1) . Their activities like feeding and moving around are
2 pages (500 words) Essay
r the last decade, the structure of faculties and departments have frequently been reformed, thereby the positioning of courses and the number of students underwent significant changes. Along with these institutional problems, experiment contents and methods have been improved
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Analyze forms of simple stimulus learning
As far as learning may occur consciously or without awareness of the process, the forms of simple non-associative learning are interesting for analysis
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Don't need a topic
The basic methodology used to conduct the research is using the Subitization or the ability of recognition of small numerals using the conscious counting in the process. In general, the method was a sequential deliberation of separate
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Essay 2
Models that postulate two different processing modes have been widely proposed in numerous topic areas within cognitive and social psychology. The
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Contact Us