Due to his intellectual gifts, Martin Luther was able to pursue studies in the University of Wittenberg and his scholarship, especially in the Bible, helped his progress towards a reformer. In 1517, he was forced to break up with Rome and he dedicated his life to the spreading of reformative ideas.
Although Lutheranism and Calvinism outwardly share several commonalities, they both differ from each other in a significant way. In spite of the fact that both these movements emphasized people's sinfulness, lack of free will, and helplessness, rejected good works as means of salvation, accepted only baptism and communion as sacraments etc, the major ideologies of Calvinism were very different from those of Lutheranism. They differed with regard to the concept of predestination, morality and discipline, church organization, etc. Significantly, Calvinism particularly appealed to certain groups and the people of the cities welcomed both Lutheranism and Calvinism. Calvinism, especially, appealed to the learned men and the literate, and it emphasized sobriety, discipline, and communal responsibility. It was more successful in the areas of southern France. ...Show more