How and what did Yuan Dynasty writers create in the Vernacular Songs (sanqu) Give explanations for the diverse literary features and the themes in these verna

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Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) ruled China during the glorious days of Khans. It followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty. It was established by ethnic Mongols which included Genghis Khan and his famous grandson Kublai Khan. Those were the days of Chinese resentment against the invader rulers, even though the rulers were the military might of those days and China was secure under them.


They wrote San-qu, the vernacular songs with tonal patterns from folk music, similar to Short Lyrics of Xiao-ling, and these could be beautifully sung with the melody. It included various types that accommodated acting, rhythmic singing, dancing, performance, and had a colloquial and lively style, that was extremely attractive and jovial.
In those days scholars were not highly appreciated and their status was inferior to that of artisans and Buddhist monks, akin to beggars and prostitutes. Mongols discriminated the poets and intellectuals1, who suffered humiliation and poverty in the absence of royal recognition and intellectual respect. They lived as recluses marginalised by the main society, with hardly any financial or social benefits. Even though cities were powerful, administration was in the hands of a chosen few and government was more interested in military conquests than in sensitive arts. Intellectuals suffered under the unimaginative and rude policies. Even though they were highly educated and eminently suitable for administration, they were not encouraged to do so, and even a few who were in it were persecuted in one way or other and poured their aspirations and grievances in creating touching poetry.
Origin of Yuan San-qu was necessary because Lyrics of Song Dynasty ha ...
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