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To ascertain the presence of acute renal failure in patients, the following diagnostic tests are required: Blood tests that include "CBC, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, electrolytes (including Ca and PO4)
The case did not state whether Mrs. Rainer was diagnosed with postrenal or intrinsic renal cause. In any case, there are several possibilities associated with oliguria. In postrenal causes, a probable cause of oliguria comes from an obstructed urinary tract. The obstructed urinary tract could be caused by "1) a blocked urethral catheter; 2) calculi/blood clot in single kidney; or 3) pelvic malignancy" (Cumming, n.d.).In intrinsic renal causes, the most common occurrences of oliguria are in acute tubular necrosis (ATN). There are two principal types of ATN: Ischaemic tubular necrosis and Nephrotoxic ATN (Cumming, n.d.) With Ischaemic tubular necrosis, "the renal blood flow is below 20% the normal level and the endothelial cells of glomerular and peritubular capillaries are swollen and oedema of the interstitium." (Cumming, n.d.) In Nephrotic ATN, the same condition holds except the sequence of deterioration was initiated by toxicity of the causative agent (drugs) to tubular cells like "aminoglycoside antibiotics, pentamidine, acyclovir, paracetamol, amphotericin, cisplatin, and cyclosporin." (Cumming, n.d.) ...
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