A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike."
The League of Nations, an international organization, was established after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
War weariness is a common phenomenon, more so when the gains from such wars are intangible and far removed from domestic affairs. In the aftermath of prolonged periods of conflict, "war prevention assumes a high priority[and]the favoured technique is to institute measures of cooperation and consultationwith a view to preventing war"(Buzan 1983, 163). The League of Nations established in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I, was one such attempt to change the focus of war prevention from individual to collective security.
For such an organization to be effective, it had perforce to have the backing of the major powers. Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and later Germany and Russia - all great powers in their own right - joined the League of Nations. The United Sates on the other hand, was the only major power not to join the League in spite of having been instrumental in creating it in the first place. According to Meg Harney, "While an excellent idea in theory, the League met with repeated problemssimply because nations had not adapted their foreign policy to change". The Senate Foreign Relations Committee was one such institution that could neither envision nor endorse this shift from a, 'balance of power' diplomacy to a new diplomacy giving greater weightage to collective security. This dichotomy i.e. ...