Renin release is followed by conversion of hepatic angiotensinogen to angiotensin I which is subsequently converted to angiotensinogen II by the enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE is found in high concentrations in the pulmonary circulation, systemic vasculature and kidney. Angiotensinogen in turn carries out two important independent actions to bring the hemostasis back to normal: the direct vasoconstrictve effect to improve the blood pressure and stimulation of adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone which results in sodium retention and potassium excretion. Aldosterone also responds to adrenocorticotrpic hormone (ACTH) and potassium excess for its release. The aldosterone action for sodium resorption by the distal convoluted involves the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR); the induction of the basolateral sodium-potassium ATPase pump and the apical sodium channel (Stewart pp1-10) (Weber 2001).
Congestive cardiac failure is the condition when heart is unable to carry out its normal function of pumping blood to supply oxygen and nutrients to different parts of the body including vital organs, in other words there is an insufficient cardiac out to meet the demand of the body. Human body, initially, responses to this pathology by the expansion of the intravascular volume. ...Show more