Central Engineering and Research Department

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Crosby defined quality as conformance to requirements. The requirement is towards the quantitative, that is "zero defects". In the context of a physical hard and readily definable product, specifying requirements is essentially straightforward. In the context of services, certain characteristics of the product are less tangible, or even intangible, except at the point of consumption.


Crosby believes that the only performance measurement is the cost of quality. Here, Crosby believes that the cost of quality is always a measurable item, for example rework, warranty costs, rejects, and that this is the only basis on which to measure performance. As a practical measurement of quality this might generally be considered to be useful although it cannot be seen as the only measure of business performance, rather the only measure of quality. Juran's work also focuses very clearly on measurement and specific objectives. Again, the validity of this approach must be questioned. Many aspects of quality are difficult to accurately and reliably quantify. In contrary, Deming believes in a management approach with a long-term orientation. Deming gives explicit recognition to the need to satisfy shareholder expectations, but points out that these expectations often go beyond immediate return on capital to consider the future. Deming criticizes failure to recognize and evaluate the intangible aspects of the organization, for example, the additional sales generated through satisfied customers, the benefits to productivity and quality derived from people feeling part of a success story. ...
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