Ergonomics (the word is derived from Old Greek - work and - law) (Goetsch 2004, p. 160) has become a common term in the 1920s, when the technological component of human productive activity became quite complicated. The first studies in the field of ergonomics were carried out in the USA, Great Britain, and Japan.
It was emphasized by Christensen that even at the earliest period of development of humans it was obvious that there is a necessity for the tools to fit the construction of a human body. "Australopithecus Prometheus selected pebble tools and made scoops from antelope bones in a clear display of selecting/creating objects to make tasks easier to accomplish". (History of ergonomics 2007) The human beings continued improving their working tools, and later machines and other complicated mechanisms. That was actually how ergonomics began.
Centuries ago, researchers started noticing connections between physical work and orthopedic injuries - e.g. in the 17th century, Bernardino Ramazinni in his "De Morbis Artificum" wrote about different work-related diseases of people; in the 19th century, Wojciech Jastrzebowski was the first to use the very word "ergonomics" in his treatise. With the development of technologies, the peculiarities of human body and motions and their connection to production were observed, and that is how the basics of ergonomics were developing. Frederick W. Taylor managed to increase the production at Bethlehem Steel, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth improved tools and job process in bricklaying using the principles of ergonomics. (History of ergonomics 2007)
As far as Taylor is concerned, he is called nowadays ...