First, from its original root of French film practice, the term refers to the identification of the movie's editor.
Secondly, Soviet filmmakers used "montage" in the 1920's as method of juxtaposing shots to derive new meaning as a concealed message to convey that was not apparent to the scene. Third is the "montage sequence" usage usually done by the Hollywood filmmakers to condense fashionably a narrative segment in a film (Smith 2004).
Lev Kuleshov was the first Soviet filmmaker who used the Soviet Montage. For him, it is an art really meant for film editing and cannot be done in other medium. Sergie Eisenstein views this as a tool or an electricity to be used to shock the audience (Risse 2007).
This theory of editing innovated from its simple nature to the more intelligent execution being formulated and executed in present international cinemas. The progression of the editing theory varies from different filmmakers' views and responsibilities (Karpenko 2002).
History. During the great depression period of Russia from the Tsar catastrophe the artistic flair of Russian filmmakers also rage along with it. Filmmaking that time was encouraged and greatly supported by a Union Socialist leader Vladimir Lenin (Smith 2004).
Lev Kuleshov was among the very first to theorize the effectiveness of using film as a medium to convey various relevant messages of socialism. For Kuleshov, editing is like a brick by construction of the building. In this case, it's a shot by shot in order to construct a film (Smith 2004).
Between 1919 and 1924, Kuleshov conducted certain montage experiments that eventually then influenced other Russian filmmakers. The necessity to do such was due to the shortage of the stock of the film (Bordwell 1972).
In its early period, this method of editing was then called a Kuleshov Experiment. He justified that Montage was more effective in message delivery as viewers can easily discern it by context. Kuleshov explained that visual materials depicted can help the viewers to reach the certain conclusions and messages (Smith 2004).
In the 1920's, Soviet filmmakers had their own personal opinions on how to execute montage. It was Sergei Einsenstein, a former student of Kuleshov, who marked a note with his own montage execution (Murch 2001).
The remarkable note Einsenstein regarded for the montage as he described it as "the nerve of the cinema". He elaborated that "montage is an idea that arises from the collision of not text to the other, but on the top of the other". With this view, thus Soviet Montage had been noted in film editing from them on (Murch 2001).
U.S. film director D.W. Griffith, although not part of the montage school, was one of the credited contributors of Soviet Montage for his own approach of power of editing. He used cross cut editing and codifying film grammar. His works were acknowledge by Kuleshov and other Soviet filmmakers, thus helped them to have wider view on film editing (Smith 2004).
Sergei Eisenstein viewed montage as a dialectical medium of creating and conveying meaning. He was merely the first one to develop a system of editing that was not concerned with continuity system's rule and technicalities. He called his own montage as "Intellectual Montage".
Intellectual Montage Editing. Sergei Eisenstein believed that editing was the foundation of the